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Think chemistry classes should be all about balancing chemical equations and memorizing the periodic table? Think again.

In a paper published last month in Nature Sustainability, researchers from North America and Western Europe recommend that educators put chemistry in context by devoting more time to how the discipline affects society and the environment.

Take, for example, the Haber-Bosch process, which reacts nitrogen from the air with hydrogen from natural gas to create ammonia — an essential ingredient in many of the fertilizers used to grow the crops that feed the world. Chemistry curricula almost always mention this process, the study says, but rarely cover how immensely important it is in global agriculture.

Getting even less attention? Overproduction of ammonia. Companies now create so much of the chemical that nitrogen pollution is a real threat to waterways and nitrogen production a real contributor to the greenhouse gases that cause climate change.

Chemistry, the researchers say, has long focused on “creating new products and materials” without considering how those products and materials will affect environmental systems. The authors, who are members of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry’s task force on Systems Thinking in Chemistry Education, contend that until chemistry classes cover issues like this, students won’t get the full picture.

The solution? The researchers recommend that chemistry educators make sustainability a central theme of their classes, adopting a “systems thinking” approach that examines how the effects of chemical reactions ripple out into social and environmental systems in complex ways.

That Haber-Bosch process, for example, is deeply intertwined with environmental frameworks such as the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals in multiple ways. While ammonia fertilizer relates to the objectives of ending hunger and poverty, overproduction is a threat to life on land, life underwater and clean water sources for humans. Students, the authors posit, should hear about these implications as well as about the process itself.

Similarly, the study says, students could apply chemical principles to explore the implications of greenhouse gas production instead of just studying scientific gas laws outside of their real-world context.

Some groups have taken practical steps to bring these ideas into the classroom. The authors point out that the American Chemical Society is developing a road map for bringing “green chemistry” into curricula. And at the K–12 level, the Next Generation Science Standards, which have been adopted by 19 states so far, include “systems and system models” as a crosscutting concept for all scientific disciplines, including chemistry.

With chemistry and chemicals at the center of numerous environmental crises — and their solutions — incorporating sustainability into chemistry education could make a big difference.

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In 2007–08, the cost of fertilizer soared — driven in part by a 400% spike in the price of phosphate rock, a key ingredient. The shock especially hurt poor subsistence farmers, spurring protest and rebellion in Kenya, Vietnam, India, Nepal, Nigeria, Egypt and elsewhere.

But while crops need phosphorus to grow, mineral phosphate — concentrated in a handful of nations, leaving many dependent on the whims of international markets — isn’t the only source. A study published earlier this year in the journal Earth’s Future looks at how, by recycling phosphorus, countries could become less dependent on uncertain global trade while cutting down on pollution from fertilizer.

The international team of researchers sought to identify “hot spots” for recycling phosphorus. Since animal manure, human waste and uneaten food contain the element, the team mapped places around the world where crop production coincides with high densities of livestock or people.

map of phosphorus recycling Stephen Powers et al. paper

Researchers mapped places around the world where crop production coincides with high densities of livestock or people in order to identify “hot spots” for recycling phosphorus. Photo courtesy of Stephen Powers. An edited version of this paper was published by AGU. Copyright 2019 American Geophysical Union.

Hot spots are on every continent except Antarctica. They tend to be in countries that rely on imported phosphorus to cultivate crops, or in nations where demand for fertilizer has grown substantially since the beginning of this century.

Hot spots for recycling phosphorus from sewage and food waste occurred mostly in China, India, Southeast Asia, Europe, Central Africa, East Africa and Central America. Those focused on using animal manure are mostly in China, India, Southeast Asia, Europe and Brazil. Roughly 70% of recycling hot spots are in countries in which the net import of phosphorus fertilizer accounts for at least 40% of the phosphorus fertilizer used.

Identifying places where phosphorus-laden waste products occur near agriculture could help nations develop local phosphorus recycling and contribute to “agricultural independence,” the researchers write. And phosphorus recycling can also have environmental benefits. Phosphorus from human and animal waste can end up in waterways, where it can spur the growth of harmful algae, so keeping it out is beneficial.

By developing ways to efficiently recycle phosphorus, countries reduce water pollution at the same time as they build food systems less prone to price shocks.

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A crowd gathered in Hudson, Wisconsin, earlier this month for a public forum on whether the federal government should remove gray wolves from the endangered species list and turn management over to the state. “I literally beg you” to de-list the wolf, said one farmer concerned about wolves attacking livestock, according to the Hudson Star-Observer.

“I have no confidence in the state of Wisconsin … to manage wolf hunting,” said another attendee, siding with concerns that de-listing would result in trophy hunting that could bring the gray wolf back to the brink of extinction.

Another day, another debate on wildlife management.

A recently released study sponsored by the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies seeks to understand increasing disagreement about how to manage wildlife by exploring attitudes about fish and wildlife and how they vary with time, geography and demographics. As part of the study, researchers polled people across the country about their attitudes toward fish, wildlife and the environment.

“Conflict is increasingly common in contemporary fish and wildlife management,” write the researchers in their report, America’s Wildlife Values. “The source of conflict is typically not a matter of biology; rather, it involves a clash of goals among stakeholders.”

The survey found that about 35% of respondents can be classified as mutualists, a group that regards animals as family or companions and value habitat protection. Some 28% are traditionalists, believing wildlife should be managed primarily for human uses like hunting and research.

Comprising 21% of respondents, people with pluralist outlooks express either mutualist or traditionalist values depending on the situation. Roughly 15% of people who took the survey, meanwhile, don’t give much thought to wildlife at all.

Attitudes appear to be shifting over time. Between 2004 and 2018, the number of traditionalists fell by about 6% across 19 western states for which the researchers had historical data. In that time, those same states saw a 5% rise in mutualists on average.

While the exact changes varied by state, they do carry implications for attitudes about wildlife management. Mutualists tend to worry about declines in animal populations, while traditionalists are more concerned with private property rights and public access to fish and wildlife.

The researchers attribute the shift in mutualist and traditionalist values to “processes of modernization.” Comparing state-level statistics, they found that states whose residents have higher incomes and live in larger cities tend to be states where mutualists made up a larger fraction of the population. Places with more college graduates also had more mutualists. For those three factors, the reverse held true with regard to traditionalists.

These trends could continue into the future, the report suggests, as more people live in cities removed from day-to-day contact with wildlife.

On top of their broad overview, the researchers also released survey data for each of the 50 U.S. states, which can be downloaded on the study’s website.

“Our findings do not dictate any specific type of managerial response,” the authors write. But, they add, the results raise important questions for state wildlife agencies: How can agencies serve traditional clientele while embracing new stakeholders? How will changes in values affect wildlife management efforts? And what will the situation look like going forward, two or three decades into the future?

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Biodiversity, the variety and number of living things, may drive conservation conversations. But it’s far from the only way to look at life on Earth.

Enter biomass: not the energy source, but the total amount of matter bound up in plants, animals, bacteria and other organisms. A worldwide “census” of biomass, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, estimates how living groups compare — and highlights how much we still don’t know about the biosphere.

The study’s numbers are the basis for two new infographics from Our World in Data.

The census researchers considered the weight of carbon molecules in organisms, one way to measure biomass. After reviewing hundreds of prior studies, they found a lot of uncertainty for some groups and even entire environments. But they came up with a best estimate: Biomass across all forms of life sums up to about 550 billion metric tons (610 billion tons) of carbon. (The authors have since suggested the number may be closer to 500 billion metric tons, or 550 billion tons, still a massive figure.)

global biomass by taxon

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If the published estimate is accurate, it would put the total dry weight of organisms on our planet at roughly double that — a mass equivalent to more than 80 billion school buses.

About 80% of Earth’s biomass is in plants, which mostly live on land. The scientists estimate that the next largest group is bacteria, coming in at around 15% of the planet’s biomass.

Fungi and archaea, a group of single-celled organisms that may be more closely related to plants and animals than to bacteria, come in third and fourth place, respectively. Trailing fungi and archaea? The rest of the tree of life, including all animals.

Animal life amounts to just about two gigatons of biomass, mostly arthropods (like crustaceans and insects) and fish. Humans account for around 3% of that animal carbon, which is still larger than that of wild mammals (a paltry 7 million metric tons, or 8 million tons).

Biomass tells a different story than measurements of biodiversity. Take Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), for example: Per the researchers’ estimates, that one species accounts for more biomass than literally all  9,000 to 18,000 bird species combined.

Similarly, the total weight of domesticated poultry, which are mostly chickens, is about three times the total of wild birds.

These estimates do carry uncertainty. The researchers are fairly confident in their estimate for the biomass of plants, which draws on multiple sources, including remote sensing and international surveys. But with groups like protists, land-based arthropods and amphibians, limited data make conclusions quite uncertain.

distribution of biomass land water subsurface

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The authors note that while the world has paid close attention to how humans are altering biodiversity, we know much less about how we’re impacting the planet’s biomass, which they say complements biodiversity as a measure of the well-being of the biological component of our planet.

“Biodiversity, which is very important, does not capture the absolute abundance of organisms,” write Ron Milo and Yinon Bar-On, biologists at the Weizmann Institute of Science who worked on the study, in an email to Ensia. They give the example of wildebeest in East Africa’s Serengeti ecosystem, which are important because they contribute to the diversity of species — but also due to the sheer number of wildebeest. Massive population losses among these antelopes would harm the ecosystem, even if the number of species stayed the same.

Despite the uncertainty, the census gives us a different perspective on the living groups that make up the biosphere. Future research can further clarify the state of life on Earth, and hopefully inform action to save it.

Photo of teenagers playing video games  

Some 2.4 billion people play video games on computers, consoles and phones. Defying stereotypes, gamers are diverse in terms of age, gender and even geography, with gaming hot spots including countries like China, the United States, India, Nigeria and Vietnam.

With so many players worldwide, video games present an opportunity for boosting environmental awareness and action, according to a new report from UN Environment and GRID-Arendal, “Playing for the Planet: How Video Games Can Deliver for People and the Environment.”

“Video games — if seen and approached as serious and transformative tools — could empower billions to contribute to urgently needed solutions” to climate change and other environmental crises, the report says. It offers seven strategies for moving in that direction:

1. Nudge players toward environmental awareness and action.  

Game developers can incorporate environmental messaging into the fun. For example, Pokémon Go, an augmented reality game that users play on their smartphones, offered in-game rewards when players participate in Earth Day cleanups. RuneScape, a massively multiplayer online roleplaying game, partnered with United for Wildlife and gave an in-game pet to players who correctly answered questions on a rhino conservation quiz.

Another option? “Reminding players to switch off or reset console defaults so that they consume less power (in exchange for points) could be a quick-fire way to save energy,” the report says.

2. Organize impact campaigns with a focus on sustainability. 

Companies can highlight environmental concerns in many ways, such as donating a portion of revenue from game sales to conservation causes or releasing adapted versions of games and characters that support environmental awareness.

If industry leaders team up for concerted, monthlong efforts to spotlight particular environment-related themes, they can raise awareness around important issues. Such campaigns could not only bring attention to environmental concerns but also promote participating game titles.

3. Raise money for global causes. 

In April 2016, for instance, Apple donated money from the sales of certain apps to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). In-app purchases or free media space could also help raise money for environment-related causes.

4. Combat e-waste and embrace energy efficiency. 

Since making and shipping cartridges, discs and packages produces greenhouse gases, use of digital downloads rather than physical, packaged games can reduce climate impacts. Ditto for gaming consoles that have energy efficiency settings as the default.

The report also calls on companies to cut down on e-waste. This can include educating customers, recycling the waste through buyback programs and lobbying for public policies to support a more sustainable circular economy.

5. Incentivize games that spotlight sustainability. 

While they can also be entertaining, so-called “serious games” seek to send a message or let players explore nuanced concepts related to sustainability. Government incentives such as subsidies or tax breaks could encourage developers to create serious games with an eye toward the environment. For example, the U.S. Department of Education helped fund Eco, an online multiplayer game that challenges players to build a civilization on a virtual planet and reckon with how their use of resources affects the ecosystem.

6. Use personalities and incentives to promote the environment. 

The report floats the idea that sustainability stakeholders could work with gaming stars, “who have a massive reach and influence on young people,” to promote “climate smart” behavior. Some gaming stars have millions of subscribers on YouTube, so the potential impact is huge.

The gaming industry could also help out with efforts such as offering an annual award for best environmental game.

7. Get parents involved.

To keep kids connected to nature and help them make good decisions in the digital world, the report calls on parents to engage with their children around gaming. “If parents approach these challenges with their children, video games can help us leave the planet on a better trajectory than the one it has been on since we were born,” the report says. “We can learn and do most, in the healthiest way, if (outdoors and in) we play together with our children.”

Climate change lifestyle  

The sheer scale of the individual and societal shifts needed to avoid the worst of climate change might seem immobilizing. But real progress remains within reach if we can make those transformations soon, according to a new report from the public interest foundation Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Aalto University and D-mat ltd, a sustainable production and consumption consultancy.

Instead of looking at the climate impact of particular products, organizations or entire countries, the researchers examined greenhouse gas emissions attributable to the goods and services individual people consume in their daily lives.

In 2016, governments around the world agreed to limit global warming to 2 °C (3.6 °F) above preindustrial levels, and to aim for an even tougher target of 1.5 °C (2.7 °F).

To achieve those targets, we need hefty cuts in the emissions of carbon dioxide and other gases that create a greenhouse effect. Using five countries — Finland, Japan, Brazil, China and India — as case studies, the new report calculated that to meet the Paris targets, people’s carbon footprints in wealthy, industrialized countries must drop 80 to 93 percent by 2050. Depending on the nation, individuals in lower-income countries need to reduce their emissions 23 to 84 percent per person by mid-century.

As daunting as that might sound, the report notes that opportunities for creating the needed change abound.

To show how different lifestyle choices can contribute to the needed reductions, the authors delve into the examples of Finland and Japan. In both countries, the options that could help most include ditching car travel for public transportation, shifting to vegetarian or vegan diets, and abandoning fossil fuels in favor of on- and off-grid renewable energy. In Finland, the researchers found, using heat pumps to warm and cool homes could also have a huge impact — underscoring the value of tailoring emission reduction strategies to local contexts

With the gaping gulf between today’s emissions and where we need to get by 2050, however, focusing only on the big ticket items won’t be enough. Other lifestyle shifts identified in the report include ride sharing, living closer to work, consuming less dairy and living in smaller homes. The more people who make these changes, the more climate benefits we will see.

But it’s not up to individuals alone. While the report attributes emissions to people based on their use of goods and services, it notes that public policy is essential to achieving the 1.5-degree target. A truly low-carbon world will require a “radical rethink” of governance and the economic system, it says.

In calculating each country’s emission reduction targets, the researchers used population projections and assumed that each person on the planet in a given year should have the same level of emissions, a premise that the authors concede doesn’t consider “whether emission allowances were equitable in terms of historical emissions.” The report also doesn’t consider rebound effects, the unintended consequences that sometimes result when people try to decrease their emissions.

Whatever the study’s specific limitations, its general conclusions add to a groundswell of evidence: We still have a chance to keep average global temperatures within 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) of the only climate humans have ever known, but to do so we need to take immense action — and soon.

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Three out of every 10 people on Earth lack access to a reliable supply of clean drinking water. Six out of 10 lack safe sanitation. And human demand for water is expected to grow 20% to 30% between now and 2050.

A problem this massive has many dimensions — and so do its solutions, according to the United Nations’ 2019 World Water Development Report, “Leaving No One Behind.”

“Water is the essence of life,” the report states. “Safe drinking water and sanitation are recognized as basic human rights, as they are indispensable to sustaining healthy livelihoods and fundamental in maintaining the dignity of all human beings.”

Yet around the world many are denied these basic rights. Technical and scientific solutions are crucial to meet all people’s water needs, the report says, as are social and economic strategies to broaden access by changing institutions and funding.

world basic drinking water map

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To tackle the world’s water problem, the report recommends several major responses for policymakers, water resource managers and others working in this area:

More (and More Targeted) Funding

Most of the 5.2 billion people who have access to safe drinking water get it through pipes. Many low-income people, however, lack piped water and instead rely on wells or water they purchase, typically at several times the cost of water in piped systems.

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The report says governments need to “dramatically increase” the amount of money they spend to expand water, sanitation and hygiene services. But increased investment alone won’t be enough to ensure water access for marginalized people, so the report also stresses transparent, targeted subsidies to vulnerable groups. Involving community members in the planning process for water infrastructure is one proposed tactic to boost accountability.

Policymakers should also structure water rates for equity and affordability, the report says, while balancing these goals with the need to adequately fund water systems.

Research and Innovation to Inform Action

Research and innovation are key. Economic studies, for example, can help identify equitable water rates. Better data on how water and sanitation access varies along lines of gender, age, income, ethnicity, geography and the like can inform efforts to reduce disparities.

On the technical side, scientists and engineers should continue research to improve technology such as toilets and portable water filters.

Context-dependent Systems

In some places, water supply is limited by physical or environmental constraints. That calls for a focus on effective water resource management.

Where and how people live is another factor in designing solutions that work. In dense urban areas, for instance, centralized water infrastructure can be more cost-effective, while rural regions might see quicker gains with a focus on just bringing adequate facilities closer to people’s homes. When it comes to picking the right technologies and systems for water, sanitation and hygiene, the report says, it’s less about “best practice” and more about “best fit.”

Good Governance

The report describes direct discrimination, in which laws and practices intentionally shut particular groups out of services, and indirect discrimination, in which policies are supposedly neutral but still have the end result of denying people access to water and sanitation. Good governance entails rejecting both practices and moving toward values like transparency, justice and public participation.

Refugee camps are one example. To create access equality, the report says, governments must provide refugees and internally displaced people with the same level of water and sanitation service as other communities.

“Discrimination, exclusion, marginalization, entrenched power asymmetries and material inequalities are among the main obstacles to achieving the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation for all and realizing the water-related goals of the 2030 Agenda,” the report notes, concluding that “these goals are entirely achievable, provided there is a collective will to do so.”

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When it comes to conservation, it’s tempting to think that science is the only guide to good policy. But biodiversity is linked to culture, argues a new study on pollinator conservation recently published in Nature Sustainability, so we should embrace a diversity of knowledge systems, acknowledging both academic science and traditional cultural practices.

“Indigenous peoples’ and local communities’ knowledge is really grounded in evidence collected over centuries,” says Rosemary Hill, lead author on the study and a principal research scientist with CSIRO, Australia’s national science research agency.

The paper — which builds on the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) — explores how indigenous and local communities around the world approach the conservation of pollinators like bees, birds and bats. Academic researchers reviewed academic and community writings about traditional knowledge pertaining to pollinators, while participating indigenous and local people held dialogues in their communities to decide which parts of their cultural practices to share.

The result is a list of seven policy recommendations for protecting pollinators and respecting the practices of deeply rooted communities that can be applied, not just to pollinator conservation, but to conservation issues more broadly:

  1. Require informed consent from indigenous people and local communities for conservation and development initiatives. As an example, the researchers point to India’s Forest Rights Act, which they say has ensured forest access for indigenous honey hunters, thus helping to sustain indigenous communities’ knowledge about bee conservation.
  2. Support customary land management practices. Allowing indigenous people to manage land according to their own practices can strengthen traditional practices that help conservation.
  3. Bolster indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs). These ecosystems are voluntarily conserved by indigenous peoples and local communities with a focus on traditional practices and customs.
  4. Bring together different forms of knowledge. Efforts to monitor pollinator populations, for example, should consider local indigenous metrics as well as the ways science tracks trends, since people relate to their environment in different ways.
  5. Promote listing of heritage sites. International organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) document cultural and natural heritage around the world, and the awareness that heritage listing brings to landmarks, areas and cultural practices can aid conservation. The UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List, for instance, lists the traditional knowledge of the Totonac people, an indigenous group in Mexico. Totonac agroforestry protects pollinator habitat and stingless beekeeping.
  6. Foster environmentally friendly beekeeping. With support from governments, traditional beekeeping practices can sustain people’s livelihoods.
  7. Champion food sovereignty. Food sovereignty pushes back on industrial agriculture in favor of local farming and agroecological approaches. The researchers say this helps keep landscapes varied and limits use of agrochemicals.

Pasang Dolma Sherpa, executive director of the Center for Indigenous Peoples’ Research and Development (CIPRED), praises the proposals. However, she also argues that policy alone is not enough. She says it’s crucial that indigenous people continue to cultivate pride in their traditional practices, particularly among younger generations, and direct skepticism toward industrialized agriculture involving chemical fertilizers, hybrid seeds and new technologies.

Both Sherpa and the paper pointed to the importance of native languages in sustaining traditional conservation knowledge and strategies. Governments have suppressed indigenous languages in Nepal, the United States and elsewhere across the globe.

“As indigenous persons, my cry is [that] it is very, very important to be educating ourselves on the values that we have contributed” to conservation, Sherpa says, “and also to educate the policymakers … on what we have implemented on the ground.”

Photo: Academic researchers and local experts walk with the bees in the forest surrounding the Hin Lad Nai community in Thailand. Courtesy of J. Bumroongchai

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In 2015, the United Nations’ 193 member states established an agenda for the future: 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to meet by 2030. The goals encompass economic, social and environmental dimensions of development.

To evaluate environmental targets, the United Nations in 2018 identified 93 indicators: statistics such as the material footprint of nations, the national recycling rate and the extent of government subsidies for fossil fuels.

With 2030 just over a decade away, how are we doing? In large part, we don’t exactly know.

That’s a big finding from Measuring Progress, a recent review released alongside Global Environment Outlook 6 (GEO6), a report from the UN Environment Programme. For 68 percent of the environmental indicators, the report concludes that there is “too little data to formally assess” progress.

The report offers eight recommendations to secure the data needed to appraise progress and to take real steps toward that progress:

1. Do more.

Right now, the world is not on track to meet environmental targets. We can still achieve the SDGs, but to do so we’ve got to ramp up efforts to cut down on pollution, use resources efficiently, and better protect the environment.

2. Improve environmental monitoring and analysis.

By boosting support for open source software, open data management, open algorithms, and other technologies, governments and businesses could help cut costs while increasing data coverage.

3. Create clear methodologies for sustainable development indicators

Without an established process for collecting data and producing statistics, the report argues, it’s difficult to build awareness of environmental issues, evaluate the effectiveness of environmental interventions, and hold institutions accountable for their action — or lack of action — on the SDGs.

4. Improve national statistical systems.

Countries need to invest more in their capacities to collect (and use) geospatial and environmental data.

5. Make data more accessible.

Data often aren’t shared between government agencies. This hinders analysis of the relationship between people and their environment and makes it hard for scientists and other experts to access environmental information relevant to their work.

6. Focus on local and regional contexts.

Countries are at different stages in the process of reaching SDGs. And many of the goals demand specific attention to the needs of individual communities, such as support for local water management plans, local breeds for agriculture, and disaster risk reduction by local governments.

7. Get serious about sustainable consumption and production.

This is the 12th SDG, and it’s an important part of achieving other goals. But UN member states don’t direct enough funding toward it, and it’s the goal most lacking in data.

8. Overcome water resource challenges.

Without quality, available freshwater, sustainable development is impossible — food security, poverty reduction and public health, for example, all suffer.

If stakeholders around the world can take action to close these knowledge and information gaps, the report makes clear, we’ll have a better grasp of the challenges ahead — and the resources we’ll need to meet them — on the road to 2030.

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Drought, extreme temperatures, salt in the soil: Because of conditions like these — which scientists call abiotic stresses — the fields that feed the planet yield just half the amount of food crops they have the potential to provide. With climate change, some of these stresses are worsening, even as rising population means more mouths to feed.

One solution to this challenge? Naturally stress-resistant plants, or NSRPs, which thrive despite difficult environments and challenging conditions. That’s the argument from a paper by a team of Chinese researchers in the academic journal Nature Plants. People already eat some NSRPs, and the paper contends that genetic modification of these crops could give them the boost they need to be produced more widely.

The researchers point to millets as one example. These edible grasses are a staple crop in parts of Africa and Asia, and they’re adapted well to one of the most formidable abiotic stresses: drought. Plus, millets can usually withstand high soil salinity and grow without much nitrogen fertilizer. An issue with millets, though, is that they often have low yields, the paper says, although scientists are working to change that.

Another NSRP suited for human consumption is quinoa, which tolerates high levels of salt in the soil and can grow in a variety of climates.

Higher yields would allow these and other NSRPs — such as amaranth, kaniwa and buckwheat — to be cultivated more broadly, the researchers argue. They say that advances in gene editing technology, such as CRISPR, can and should be used in conjunction with other techniques to keep the plants’ stress resistance and nutritional value in place while raising yields.

The paper doesn’t address potential limitations to the argument. The authors begin their plea for a turn toward NSRPs by quoting the often cited number that “food production must increase by at least 70%” by 2050, focusing on scientific and technological solutions. They don’t address political dynamics, the reality that government policies influence the distribution of existing food resources and the composition of people’s diets.

And commercialization of plants like quinoa holds the potential to funnel farmers’ resources toward a select few varieties of a given crop, at the expense of the very diversity that helps such crops withstand environmental change. Plus, some people still have concerns over genetic modification and CRISPR.

Still, as the human population climbs and climate change intensifies, the world will be looking for solutions. “For better food security and a healthier diet,” the paper’s authors write, “the world needs many more stress-resistant crops. As both researchers and global citizens, we look forward to a sustainable future with many stress-resistant, resource-efficient and nutrient-diverse grain, vegetable and fruit crops.” View Ensia homepage

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More than two dozen futurists, environmental scientists and others from around the world recently put their heads together to do a “horizon scan” of emerging trends that are getting relatively little attention but have the potential to have substantial impact on biodiversity conservation in the future.

The research team, led by William Sutherland, professor of conservation biology at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom, then narrowed the list down to 15 top trends poised to affect biodiversity for better or for worse in the months ahead.

“By increasing recognition of the issues described in this paper, we aim to encourage dialogue about their potential negative and positive impacts on conservation, in order to guide proactive solutions and harness future opportunities,” the researchers write.

This year’s report, the 10th annual, was published today in Trends in Ecology & Evolution. (Read previous trend summaries for 2016, 2017 and 2018.)

Here are the issues that bubbled to the top for 2019:

Antarctic Sea Floor

Antarctic ice is melting faster than we thought. As meltwater flows to the ocean, it’s likely to change the salinity of near-shore waters and carry sediments that settle on and kill creatures living at the bottom of the sea. It also may stimulate plankton growth, changing how ecosystems function in the area. These alterations all stand to alter the flow of carbon dioxide into and out of the atmosphere, potentially affecting the trajectory of climate change. Some changes are likely to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, while others could increase its release. How these changes will affect the carbon cycle is currently unknown.

More-than-ever Mercury

Recent research suggests that permafrost holds more than 1.6 million metric tons (1.8 million tons) of mercury, far more than previously estimated and about twice the amount found everywhere else on Earth. As climate warms and permafrost thaws, much of this mercury will be released into the water cycle and transported to distant locations. Because mercury is toxic to humans and other animals, harms brain and reproductive function, and alters the function of plants and microbes, this release could have consequences for life around the world.

Plastic Solutions as Problems

Heightened awareness of plastic’s downsides has led to numerous efforts to produce more benign substitutes and/or ways of managing conventional plastics. Little has been done to consider the full life-cycle implications and potential unintended consequences of deploying these new approaches. But from changes in recycling approaches, to the use of biological agents to degrade materials, to the manufacture of substitutes for conventional plastics from plants, all alternatives will have ramifications of their own for food security, water use, ecosystem integrity and more. Not only that, but the promise they offer — whether it’s realized or not — could defuse other efforts to reduce rather than shift plastic consumption.

Sunscreen Switchout

Concerns that active ingredients in conventional sunscreens contributing to coral reef bleaching have led to a search for substitutes that can block ultraviolet rays from reaching beachgoers’ skin with less adverse environmental impact. One such compound, shinorine, is drawing increasing interest, with recent research yielding a method for production in commercial quantities. Shinorine is known to cause inflammation in humans but little else is known of its biological activity. Widespread adoption of shinorine without sufficient research could expose corals or other aquatic and marine organisms to a new substance with unknown impacts.

A New River for China 

A massive new irrigation canal called the Hongqi River has been proposed for northern China. Although the project is still in the conceptual stage, it is drawing attention of scientists and policy-makers alert its potential impact on ecosystems in the vicinity and far beyond. Carrying 60 billion cubic meters (2 trillion cubic feet) of water per year, the channel would have tremendous implications for the environment and biodiversity along its route, from accelerating conversion of land to agriculture to changing hydrology across the region and affecting water supplies downstream in India, Bangladesh and beyond. It also holds the potential to affect climate and even increase the frequency of earthquakes.

DIY Weather on the Tibetan Plateau

China is developing plans to set up a battery of rocket-based devices along the edges of the Tibetan Plateau to release silver-iodide particles that will create clouds and produce rain over some 1.6 million square kilometers (600,000 square miles) of land with the goal of improving water security for people downstream. The technology, if deployed, could dramatically alter weather in the area, potentially leading to the deterioration of alpine cold steppe and meadow ecosystems and loss of habitat for species that inhabit them. It also could affect flow in river systems throughout much of Asia with ancillary impacts on both humans and ecosystems along the way.

Salt-Tolerant Rice

The development of salt-tolerant strains of rice is good news for food security, since it allows continued production of this important staple crop in areas where rising sea level and irrigation have increased the salinity of traditional rice-growing regions. However, because the development also holds promise for being able to expand the crop along ocean coastlines and on inland salt steppes, it raises new concerns for the integrity of ecosystems. In addition, commercial growth of salt-tolerant strains could increase demands on freshwater resources, since they may be needed to dilute saltwater to appropriate salt concentrations.

Open Season on Gene Editing

Now that the U.S. Department of Agriculture has elected not to regulate the use of gene editing in plants in many instances, techniques such as CRISPR are drawing increased attention from the research and development world. The implications of increased innovation for conservation are uncertain. Gene editing applications that reduces the use of farm chemicals or makes it possible to produce more crops on less land could bode well for biodiversity. Those that bring unintended consequences to wild species or that result in increased use of agro-chemicals could lead to adverse outcomes instead.

Fishy Oilseed Crops

The (perhaps) good news: Genetic engineers have figured out a way to get other oilseed crops to produce the omega-3 fatty acids that are normally found in fish and prized for their health-promoting capabilities. Application of this technology might not only improve the nutritional value of vegetable oil, but also reduce harvest pressure on strained wild fish populations. The (perhaps) bad news? By displacing other oils within the oilseed plants, these alterations could diminish the plants’ ability to provide sustenance to insects. In fact, one study has already shown that caterpillars that feed on the genetically altered plants are more likely to develop into butterflies with deformed wings than are other caterpillars.

Cherry-picking Plant Microbiomes

Growing demand for sustainable agricultural may usher in a new agricultural revolution based on modifying plant microbiomes — complex communities of microbes that affect growth, disease resistance, drought tolerance and more. Because of their complexity, microbiomes have not been extensively manipulated in the past, but recent technological advances may change that. Increasingly cheap DNA sequencing and developments such as machine learning have led to an explosion in start-up companies aimed at modifying plant microbiomes to benefit agriculture. Other applications could include improving our ability to restore damaged ecosystems. The implications of manipulating plant microbiomes are unknown, but may be both positive and negative for biodiversity, ranging from reduced pesticide and fertilizer use to the expansion of farmland into areas currently unsuitable for agriculture.

Extinction in the Indo-Malay islands

Only 2 percent of land in the Indo-Malay islands are formally protected from development, despite the region’s rich biodiversity and exceptional number of organisms found nowhere else. Oil palm plantations on the islands are small relative to more-established plantations in nearby island nations, but deforestation is increasing and there are indications the palm-oil industry is expanding. Because so many species are unique to the Indo-Malay islands, further expansion of plantations could lead to a large number of extinctions.

Deeper Sea Fishing

The slice of the ocean that stretches from 200 to 1,000 meters (656 to 3,280 feet) below the surface teems with fish, but economics and technology have limited human exploitation for food — until now. As demand for ocean fish grows, a number of countries, including Pakistan and Norway, have begun to explore harvesting this “mesopelagic zone.” Fish in this zone perform important functions in ocean food webs and carbon capture; they also tend to reproduce and grow slowly. Because ocean fishing is currently not effectively regulated on a global scale, this trend raises red flags for the sustainability of their populations and ultimately of these functions.

Microbial Protein for Livestock

Livestock production places hefty demands on the environment in the form of land use, nitrogen cycle disruption and greenhouse gas emissions. As demand for protein from animal-based sources grows, so does interest in finding ways to reduce food animals’ environmental impact.  One approach under consideration is to supplement traditional feed sources with proteins made by industrially produced microbes. Whether such a practice is a net gain or drain for biodiversity, however, depends on the details. Some proposed systems could reduce land use impacts but increase energy demand, while others could reduce nitrogen and greenhouse gas pollution but lead to more disruption of habitat. Industrial production and use of of microbial proteins for livestock feed would also have as yet unknown implications for people working in the industry.

Buying Insurance on Earth’s Behalf

Could the insurance industry play a role in protecting natural areas and helping damaged habitat recover from disasters? That is the idea behind a joint project involving the Mexican government, hotel owners, the insurance industry and The Nature Conservancy. A trust fund known as the Coastal Zone Management Trust has created an insurance policy for a portion of the Mesoamerican Reef in the Caribbean Sea. In the case of a severe storm, the insurance policy will provide funds for restoration projects. In this way, natural assets are able to continue to provide benefits to the people who depend on them. Such a strategy could hold promise for protecting the integrity of other natural systems as well.

The Montreal Protocol: Regulation or Guideline?

The presence of CFC-11, a manmade chemical responsible for depleting Earth’s protective ozone layer, has declined more slowly than anticipated after the 1987 Montreal Protocol established an international commitment to limit its production. As a result, the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching Earth could increase — with troubling implications for humans and other species. An investigation suggests that China is using the chemical to produce insulation for construction. With this apparent challenge to the authority of the Montreal Protocol, the question arises: If this multilateral agreement can’t be enforced, what could any attempt at global environmental governance accomplish? The world’s response to this situation could have great implications for the future of international environmental agreements. View Ensia homepage

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Batteries are ubiquitous yet often ignored, humming in the background while powering appliances, smartphones, and other parts of our lives. They’re also a pivotal piece in the environmental puzzle, as batteries better able to store energy will boost intermittent renewables like wind and solar.

But batteries themselves have environmental drawbacks, too. They contain toxic and in some cases flammable materials. And they require lots of energy to manufacture, which means high greenhouse gas emissions.

These are among the issues raised in Future Brief: Towards the Battery of the Future, a recent report from the European Commission’s Science for Environment Policy service. As researchers continue to experiment with new materials and designs — and as regulators look to shape policy — the report (and its accompanying infographic) outlines several areas for improvement.

Mining & Refining

During any battery’s lifetime, the report says, some of the worst environmental impacts come from mining and refining. Metals like cobalt and nickel are essential for conducting electricity in many batteries, but digging them out of the ground leaves behind waste that can leak toxic substances into surrounding areas.

Once these materials are mined, workers must then extract them from the rocks they’re embedded in, a process that emits large amounts of the pollutant sulfur oxide. To mitigate these harms, the report calls for more reuse and recycling of battery materials.

Researchers are working to develop higher density batteries, which the report points to as another helpful solution. By storing more energy in a smaller space, such batteries use less metal. And compared with batteries that are less dense, they can power a device for a longer stretch of time, so, for example, that electric vehicles can travel farther before needing to be recharged.

better batteries infographic

Infographic courtesy of Science Communication Unit, University of the West of England, Bristol (2018). Science for Environment Policy Future Brief: Towards the battery of the future. Report produced for the European Commission DG Environment, September, 2018. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/science-environment-policy. Click to enlarge.

While batteries are made to store energy, the report also highlights the massive amounts of energy used to make them. “The most efficient way of reducing [greenhouse gas] emissions from the production of batteries,” the report says, “is to manufacture cells in facilities powered entirely by renewable energy sources.”

Other Considerations

Limiting energy loss, the report argues, can also have big returns. Rechargeable batteries are able to unload most, but not all, of their energy to power phones, cars, and other devices. The remaining portion is lost, with the amount varying: Standard lead-acid batteries waste 20 to 30 percent of their energy over a lifetime, while lithium-ion batteries have energy loss closer to 10 percent. Improving efficiency by even small amounts can cut down on the environmental harms of producing electricity to charge batteries, according to the report.

Other considerations covered by the report include lengthening the lifespan of batteries, recycling the materials used to make them, and, where possible, reusing batteries for less intensive functions once they’ve lost the capacity to meet their original purpose. Batteries from electric vehicles, for instance, are sometimes refurbished and used for energy storage. For their part, battery designers can make recycling and reuse more feasible by creating batteries with easily separable parts, clear labels, a relatively low number of components, and fewer dangerous materials.

Development & Invention

Many battery technologies are in development, and the report spotlights three of them as case studies:

  • Solid-state lithium batteries replace the electrolyte, a key component of the battery that’s typically liquid, with solid ceramic or polymer material. The report says that these batteries will be safer and last longer, but it will be at least a decade before they become commercially available.
  • Redox flow batteries store energy differently than conventional alternatives. They’re not as efficient but they last longer, which would ease demand for the natural resources and polluting production processes that batteries rely on. Researchers are working to reduce the cost and size of redox flow batteries so they can reach their full potential.
  • Printed batteries have already found some commercial success. Sometimes thinner than a millimeter, they’re used in cards, tags and medical monitoring devices. According to the report, little is known about the environmental impact of printed batteries.

Batteries will always have adverse environmental impacts, but ongoing development and invention can do much to minimize them, the report concludes, noting that “changes in design and production could bring about substantial environmental benefits.” View Ensia homepage

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With Earth in the throes of what many scientists consider our planet’s sixth mass extinction — as living organisms disappear, and even many of those seen as “species of low concern” are stricken by plunging populations and increasingly constricted ranges — conservation is a global concern.

Part of the problem is space: Humans take up a lot of land, with farming alone hogging almost 40 percent of land on Earth. Even if we muster the other resources needed for conserving endangered and threatened species, the question remains: Where do we put plants and animals we want to save?

One answer: Devote retired agricultural land to species on the edge.

In a review paper published in August in Ecosphere, Chris Lortie, senior fellow with the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, and colleagues reported the results of their investigation into exactly that strategy. They zoomed in to California’s San Joaquin Valley, or San Joaquin Desert.

Today, agriculture and industry cover some 90 percent of the area, which has one of the continental United States’ highest concentrations of at-risk species. In 2014, the state passed groundwater legislation that could require retirement of hundreds of thousands of acres of farmland in the area, creating stretches of otherwise unused land that could be adopted for conservation purposes. In the new study, the researchers synthesized findings from more than 250 scientific journal articles relevant to using retired farmland for conservation in the San Joaquin desert.

“This review suggests that retired agricultural land is a viable asset for threatened and endangered species,” the researchers wrote. But the specifics vary from place to place, and in the San Joaquin Desert, as in other areas, they say that specialists would need to test various restoration techniques and figure out how much such efforts would cost.

San Joaquin kit fox

The endangered San Joaquin kit fox is among many animals that could benefit from turning retired farmland back into wildlife habitat. Photo © iStockphoto.com/brentawp

To gain insight into how agricultural land might be turned toward conservation purposes, the researchers focused on three endangered animals: the San Joaquin kit fox, the giant kangaroo rat and the blunt-nosed leopard lizard, all of which are found only in the San Joaquin Valley. After poring over the journal articles and additional materials from universities and government agencies in California, the researchers summarized some key conclusions.

First, they found that large amount of land in the San Joaquin Valley was once suitable habitat for the three species, but habitat loss has left them struggling for places to live. Retired agricultural land, the authors say, could be useful not only as habitat for endangered endemic species, but also as pathways allowing animals to move between existing populations, which might help those populations maintain genetic diversity.  The researchers also say that retiring agricultural land near existing animal habitat will boost the chance of successful conservation.

But it’s not just a matter of setting land aside for conservation. Restoration efforts would need to cut down on the prominence of exotic plants and find ways, such as mulch and irrigation, to combat the challenges recent droughts pose for reintroduced native species.

While the researchers gleaned this information from the hundreds of studies they reviewed on the San Joaquin Desert, they found few projects directly experimenting with restoration on the ground. They also turned up no information on how much it might cost to turn former farmlands into new habitat.

While the study used the San Joaquin Desert as a case study, its main lessons likely hold true in many other areas as well. The bottom line: retired farmland could be a valuable asset for conserving endangered and threatened species, but the more we know about how to do it right — and the more we pay attention to those lessons — the more effective conservation strategies will be. View Ensia homepage

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Transitions by definition are disruptive. Whether it’s switching jobs, electing new leaders, passing laws or adopting innovative technologies, some people gain while others lose. So it’s no surprise that, just as manure shovel manufacturers found the switch to horseless carriages shaking up their world, the current shift from fossil fuels to low-carbon energy sources, though ultimately beneficial to all of us, will cause pain to some people in the form of lost jobs, destabilized communities and more.

If we move into the energy transition with eyes wide open to the costs involved, we can work to eliminate or minimize them where possible, and justly distribute and compensate for them where not. But first we need a way to figure out what those costs are and who is bearing them.

In a paper published earlier this month in Nature Energy, Sanya Carley of the Indiana University School of Public and Environmental Affairs and colleagues propose a strategy for doing just that. Based on a framework developed more than a decade ago to characterize vulnerability to climate change, the researchers created and tested a tool for quantifying and comparing the impact of changes in energy policy or practice on different populations.

Determinants of vulnerability to energy policy changes

Vulnerability to negative impacts of energy policy is influenced by exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Reprinted by permission from Springer Nature, Nature Energy, A framework for evaluating geographic disparities in energy transition vulnerability, S. Carley et al, 2018. Numbers refer to references in original paper. Click to expand.

The tool, known as the vulnerability scoping diagram (VSD), merges three core elements of vulnerability: exposure (the extent to which a population experiences the consequences of the change), sensitivity (the extent to which the population is likely to be harmed) and adaptive capacity (the ability of the population to minimize the severity of the harm). Numbers representing the magnitude of each are combined to create a vulnerability score that can then be used to visualize the relative impact of the change on individuals, communities or regions.

To demonstrate the tool’s usefulness, the researchers applied it to mapping adverse impacts of state renewable portfolio standards (RPS). The exposure they looked at was the effect of RPS on electricity price. Susceptibility was based on past research that shows the elderly, very young, communities of color, people in poverty and people who spend a large proportion of their income on energy are most affected by increases in energy prices. As a measure of adaptive capacity, the researchers used access to national energy assistance programs. The results showed a wide range in vulnerability from county to county in states with an RPS.

Vulnerability to adverse impacts from renewable portfolio standards can vary dramatically. Reprinted by permission from Springer Nature, Nature Energy, A framework for evaluating geographic disparities in energy transition vulnerability, S. Carley et al, 2018. Click to expand.

The researchers acknowledged that the approach has some limitations. For one, the vulnerability map would likely change over time (for instance, as new businesses arose based on new energy sources) and vary depending on which impacts are considered. In addition, the VSD provides only part of the picture of the societal impacts of an energy transition, since it does not look at the positive impacts and their distribution or at the costs of not implementing the practice under consideration.

Despite these caveats, the team concluded that the metric can serve as a valuable tool for suggesting areas where policy-makers and service providers might focus their efforts as they work to anticipate, minimize and justly distribute adverse impacts as society moves toward a clean energy future. View Ensia homepage


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Whether it’s using plants to power muscles, ancient buried carbon to transport ourselves, or nuclear reactions to light up the dark, humans always have — and always will — depend on energy to meet the basic needs of life. Exactly how we do that, though, is undergoing a change today as profound as the ones that moved us from depending on our own labor to horsepower, or from horsepower to fossil fuels. Underlying changes in geopolitics, environmental and health concerns, economics, technology, consumer demand and business models are driving a global transition toward more sustainable, inclusive, secure and affordable energy production, distribution and consumption systems.

How smoothly the transition takes place, and how the benefits and costs of undergoing it balance out, likely will depend on the extent to which we strategically direct it, rather than just let it happen. To that end, the World Economic Forum (WEF) has established a Systemic Initiative on Shaping the Future of Energy as a way to argue for, and provide tools for shaping, a good energy transition.

As part of that effort, WEF, with help from McKinsey & Company, just released a new guide aimed at stimulating policies, corporate actions and public-private collaborations that promote a healthy shift.

global energy transition readiness

Countries around the world vary dramatically in how well their current energy system works and their readiness to move to more sustainable systems. Courtesy of World Economic Forum. Click to enlarge.

The guide, Fostering Effective Energy Transition: A Fact-based Framework to Support Decision-Making, presents an Energy Transition Index (ETI) that makes it possible to quantify for individual countries how well the current energy system is working (measured along the three dimensions of security and access, environmental sustainability, and economic development and growth) and the country’s readiness to undergo a transition to a new energy system, taking into account factors such as infrastructure, institutions, capital and political commitment.

Applying the index to 114 countries around the world, WEF draws three main conclusions. First, though most countries assessed have improved their energy systems in recent years, there is still plenty of room for improvement. Second, energy transitions can be encouraged by 1) creating conditions that facilitate desired change; 2) making sure to make improvements across all three areas of access, sustainability and economy; and 3) pursuing strategies that provide multiple synergistic benefits. Third, it’s important to recognize that each country needs to follow its own path — yet each can still learn from others.

WEF plans to update the index regularly to provide further benchmarks and feedback across time in hopes people will use the ETI to better understand how prepared various countries are to undergo an energy transition, motivate less-prepared countries to prepare, and provide ideas for how to best go about doing so. View Ensia homepage



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Tallgrass prairie, and the rich diversity of plants and animals it supports, covered 150 million acres (61 million hectares) of the central United States when white settlers began plowing it under in the 19th century to make room for crops. In today’s agriculture-dominated Midwest and eastern plains, about 4 percent of that prairie remains.

Now, a team of Iowa State University researchers, educators and extension agents is turning up evidence that weaving strips of prairie into row-crop farms can provide valuable wildlife habitat while blunting some of the worst environmental impacts of modern agriculture in the midwestern U.S.

Those impacts are significant. Excess nutrients from fertilizers and manure have fueled a New Jersey–size “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico, sparked legal fights in Iowa about polluted drinking water and blanketed parts of the Great Lakes in algae. At the same time, corn and soybean fields displace grassland habitat for wildlife and are sloughing off soil at an unsustainable rate.

“All of these are concerns for people who own land, who farm, who live in these landscapes,” says Matt O’Neal, an associate professor of entomology at Iowa State who has been part of the research team for about a decade. “There are a bunch of solutions for any one of them. But what makes prairie strips really cool is that a single practice can address all of them.”

In a paper published last year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group reported a decade’s worth of data showing that covering just 10 percent of cropland in prairie strips — planted in ribbons about 20 to 30 feet (6 to 9 meters) wide, perpendicular to the land’s slope as a barrier to runoff — cut soil loss from fields where they were planted by 95 percent and reduced phosphorus and nitrogen runoff by 77 and 70 percent, respectively. The strips also more than doubled the abundance of birds and pollinators.

The researchers also found that the strips didn’t cost as much as many other conservation practices, and did not reduce yield in the area planted in crops. Nearly 50 farms have planted prairie strips in Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri and Wisconsin, and a handful more will soon join them. Those growers want to be good stewards of their land, the researchers say, and see prairie strips as an affordable conservation tool that may ultimately help their bottom line by boosting soil health and attracting beneficial insects. Many farmers can offset the cost of strips by enrolling them in farm bill conservation programs and by using GPS and other technology to plant prairie in a field’s least productive areas.

As more farmers adopt prairie strips, research into their benefits continues. Some team members, for instance, are investigating strips as a way to halt the spread of antibiotic-resistant microbes. O’Neal and collaborators, meanwhile, are conducting research that suggests nectar- and pollen-rich prairie strips may help honeybees — and, presumably, native pollinators — survive winter by maintaining a healthy weight after crops stop flowering.

Though not the main selling point for using prairie strips, the benefit to pollinators is well worth noting, O’Neal says.

“If prairie strips are a hamburger, the nutrient reduction is the meat, soil erosion is the bun, and the sesame seeds on the top of that bun—that’s improvements for honeybees,” he explains. “It’s not going to sell you the hamburger, but it makes it look even better.”   View Ensia homepage

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When your phone stops working or you trade up for a newer model, where does it go? Like any electronic device — from laptops to lamps, washing machines to flat screen TVs — it doesn’t just disappear. It becomes electronic waste, or e-waste — a fast-growing category of trash that in 2016 alone added up to a hefty 44.7 million metric tons (49.3 million tons) worldwide, according to The Global E-waste Monitor – 2017, a new report published by the United Nations University, the International Telecommunication Union and the International Solid Waste Association. That’s the weight equivalent of close to 25 million passenger cars.

Even though that e-waste contains billions of dollars’ worth of precious metals and other valuable components, just 20 percent was officially tracked and properly recycled in 2016, according to the new report. The remaining 80 percent? It’s not consistently documented, and most of it is likely dumped, traded or recycled in haphazard, potentially harmful ways. When disposed of incorrectly, for instance by open burning, e-waste can harm people and the environment.

The three organizations produced The Global E-waste Monitor – 2017 to draw attention to the threat of e-waste, which they project will climb to 52.2 million metric tons (57.5 million tons) by 2021. By building awareness of the nature and scope of the problem, they aim to increase global reporting on e-waste as a first step toward minimizing waste production, reducing illegal disposal and boosting recycling and the economic benefits it offers.

The report notes that of the more than 190 countries on Earth, only 41 collect international statistics on e-waste, leaving much of the world’s people with little more than anecdotal awareness of where their e-waste ends up. And while experts know that wealthier nations dump lots of e-waste in lower income countries, there are no decent statistics tracking exact numbers.

The amount of electronic waste generated (WG) and collected varies dramatically among regions. From: Baldé, C.P., Forti V., Gray, V., Kuehr, R., Stegmann,P. The Global E-waste Monitor – 2017. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Vienna.

The amount of electronic waste generated (WG) and collected varies dramatically among regions. From: Baldé, C.P., Forti V., Gray, V., Kuehr, R., Stegmann, P. The Global E-waste Monitor – 2017. United Nations University (UNU), International Telecommunication Union (ITU) & International Solid Waste Association (ISWA), Bonn/Geneva/Vienna. Click to enlarge.

Because global data aren’t available, the report’s findings are estimates based on a series of statistical procedures. After noting the total weight of all electronic devices sold since 1980, the researchers calculated when products were likely discarded based on their estimated lifespan. By comparing estimates of discarded devices with recorded e-waste statistics, they approximated how much waste is generated and recycled in each of five regions — Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Oceana.

Some governments are responding. By 2017, 66 percent of the world’s population was covered by some sort of national e-waste regulation, compared to 44 percent just three years prior — a jump largely due to India, which tightened its e-waste management rules in 2016. The report notes, however, that no guarantee exists that regulations are enforced effectively, and even among countries with rules on the books, many don’t cover all kinds of e-waste. It calls for enhanced efforts to develop e-waste policies and improve e-waste reporting as key steps toward correcting these deficits. View Ensia homepage

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In the Global South, hundreds of millions of people are exposed to mycotoxins — deadly compounds produced by fungi growing on food.

Mycotoxins raise the risk of cancer and, at high doses, can kill their victims. They’re made by mold growing on staple foods like nuts, corn and other grains. Experts are concerned that climate change is helping the molds thrive.

A recent report from the United Nations’ International Agency for Research on Cancer outlined more than a dozen potential strategies for intervention. Most of the strategies require further research before they can be deployed — but here are four ready to go right now.

More Diverse Diets

Mycotoxins don’t affect all crops equally. Corn and groundnuts, for example, are more commonly contaminated than staples such as rice, sorghum and millet. Eating mold-prone foods less often, and consuming alternatives instead, can reduce mycotoxin exposure.

Dietary diversity is no simple goal: Shifting people’s food preferences presents a substantial social challenge even when communities possess economic power. But the true trap is poverty, since more money means the capacity to buy a wider range of foods.

Discarding Contaminated Crops

Farmers, villages and others can take action in the post-harvest stage of food production, including by sorting contaminated and uncontaminated crops. Studies of corn in Africa show that villages can cut the concentration of mycotoxins by removing moldy grains.

To improve sorting in the Global South, the report recommends training rural women to effectively hand sort. Equipment for automatic sorting could also help: Commercial nut farmers in developed nations employ electronic optical sorters, for example, but such technology remains out of reach for many agricultural operations worldwide.

Food security poses one of the most pernicious obstacles to using this approach, especially in Africa. When food is scarce, people are not inclined to throw out parts of their harvest.


Cooking and soaking cornmeal in limewater or a similar substance, a process called nixtamalization, breaks down some mycotoxins.

It’s common in Central and South America, though efficacy varies depending on the exact process. Nixtamalization has yet to be adapted for Asia and Africa.

Better Storage

Mold can grow on crops even after they’ve been harvested. A number of factors can cause accumulation of mycotoxins, including hot temperatures, high humidity, insects, rodents, crops being dried inadequately and water seeping into crop storage.

Improving agricultural storage can mitigate many of these issues. Crops dried more quickly after harvest are less likely to grow much mold, and storage facilities that are clean and dry can also help keep mycotoxins at bay. Other interventions, including proper water drainage, also help.

Research validates each of the four interventions, but resources are needed to put them into practice.

“As currently envisaged,” the report says, “the recommendations would be relevant for investment of public, nongovernmental organization, and private funds, at the scale of the subsistence farmer, the smallholder, and through to a more advanced value chain.” View Ensia homepage

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Each year more than a score of futurists, researchers and others from around the world put their heads together to identify top “under-the-radar” trends that have the potential to dramatically alter for better or worse our ability to protect biological diversity.

The team of two dozen researchers is led by William Sutherland, professor of conservation biology at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. “We hope,” they write, “that our annual scans not only highlight topics of potential relevance to biological conservation but also to the wider environment and, by extension, to human well-being.” In other words, the list gives us the opportunity to get out in front of issues before they become problems or maximize the benefits (and minimize downsides) of emerging technologies.

This year’s report, published yesterday in Trends in Ecology & Evolution, identifies 15 potentially hot topics lurking in the wings.

The top issues for 2018:

Trouble With Thiamine

Researchers have been observing a deficiency in thiamine, an essential vitamin, in fish, birds and bivalve mollusks in the northern hemisphere. The nutrient, also known as Vitamin B1, is important for proper metabolism and nervous system function, and insufficient thiamine even for a few days could make wildlife more vulnerable to diseases or less able to reproduce. The culprit is unknown, but scientists suspect a change in availability of algae that make thiamine and/or pollutants that make it harder for animals to absorb the vitamin.

Chronic Wasting Disease on the Move

Chronic wasting disease, a deadly brain disease that infects members of the deer family, was first found in the United Sates in 1967 and has since been found in 23 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. More recently CWD was diagnosed in deer relatives in South Korea and Norway, raising concerns that it could soon spread to other countries. The disease not only kills animals directly, it also has huge implications for ecosystems such as the Scandinavian tundra, which face disruption if large numbers of plant-eaters die.

Diseases From the Deep Freeze

Other diseases are raising concerns this year as well — primary among them, those caused by pathogens that have been trapped in frozen soils for decades, centuries or millennia. A heat wave in Siberia in 2016 caused the release of anthrax bacteria from thawing ground, resulting in the death of one person and 2,000 reindeer. As global warming and increased economic activity in the northern latitudes causes permafrost to thaw, other bacteria and viruses may reactivate and begin to infect living things as well, altering ecosystems and potentially threatening species already living on the edge.

Genetic Pesticide Control

Scientists are experimenting with a possible gene-based approach to control viruses and insects that attack plants. The approach involves spraying plants with a specific configuration of double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA) designed to disrupt production of a particular protein in the pest. When the insect or virus of concern attacks the plant, it can encounter the dsRNA and eventually be killed by, or have its reproduction disrupted by, the absence of the protein whose construction it blocks. The approach, which can extend beyond plant applications to include protecting animals from pests, could help plants stay healthy and reduce the need for other pesticides. However, there is concern that it also could harbor unintended consequences for nontarget species.

Editing Out Invaders

CRISPR gene editing has taken the world by storm in recent years. Among the applications drawing the most interest is the use of the technology to cause population declines in undesirable organisms, such as nonnative invasive species that compete for habitat or outright eat native plants and animals. Deployment of the technology in this way could provide a big boost to native species. However, concerns remain about keeping it under control to avoid spread to unintended locations or species.

Laser-Focus Fishing

Bottom trawling, a common way to catch ocean fish that involves dragging nets along the ocean floor, is tough on seabed ecosystems, harms nontarget organisms and is energy intensive. Icelandic innovators have introduced a variation on the theme that uses automated controls to keep the device from bumping the bottom and herds desired fish into it using laser beams. Widespread adoption of this technology could be good news for the ocean floor and the organisms that frequent them — but also raises concerns about making it easier to harvest fish faster than they can replenish their populations.

Metals That Capture Water

Human demand for water is growing at the same time a changing climate is making conventional supplies less certain. Now, researchers are working to perfect a technique to literally produce water from thin air using metal-based crystals and energy from the sun. Implications for conservation are mixed: The technology could reduce our need to disrupt ecosystems to obtain surface or groundwater for human use, but it also could make it easier for us to extend agriculture into natural spaces and alter the water cycle to the detriment of plants and animals.

Boosting Salt Tolerance in Plants

Withdrawal of groundwater and sea-level rise are increasing the salinity of soils in various locations around the world, making it hard for crops to thrive. However, scientists are studying strategies for improving the salt tolerance of plants, including genetically engineering molecules that transport sodium and administering silicon, which boosts such molecules’ capacity to protect the plant from being harmed by salt. Introduction of such technologies could benefit or harm native ecosystems, depending on how they’re applied: If used to improve productivity of degraded agricultural soils they could reduce pressure to plow new lands, but they also could make it easier for modified plants to outcompete native ones, reducing wild populations.

Finger on the Pulse

A solid understanding of people’s awareness, knowledge, interest and understanding of conservation topics is critical for designing and carrying out effective policies and practices. But how to get that “finger on the pulse”? An emerging resource is culturomics, the analysis of words — and, increasingly, images and sounds — in various media. Policy-makers and planners can use culturomics for help understanding predispositions and existing knowledge as a first step toward such things as showing how people value nature, understanding what makes people appreciate conservation, and identifying the effectiveness of conservation activities. Culturomics can also be used, however, to counter conservation initiatives by those with a vested interest in seeing them not succeed.

Iron, Redistributed

Iron, an essential component of living things, is continuously moving among land, water and organisms. As oceans acidify and warm, this cycling is changing, altering iron’s ability to support life. Models suggest that initially iron may be more available to life forms as floating ice gouges the seafloor, but long-term predictions are for an overall decrease in availability. Of particular concern is the extent to which iron is available to phytoplankton, the foundation of the ocean’s food web. This limitation may increase pressure to fertilize the ocean as a strategy to maintain or increase its ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the air.

Soil Carbon Wake-up

Most of Earth’s carbon is found in soil, but it’s not trapped there forever. As microbes degrade organic matter, carbon moves into the atmosphere, where it can contribute to climate change. And as climate changes, soil may release more and more carbon, faster and faster, in an ominous feedback loop. Current climate models consider this movement, but there is evidence they may underestimate release from deep layers of soil. If so, the release of carbon from soils could result in faster planetary warming than current models predict.

Quick Change Qinghai

The climate of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in Asia is changing rapidly, with temperatures and precipitation both noticeably increasing in the past several decades. In the coming years, scientists anticipate that further climatic changes will not only cause lakes to overflow and soils to release more carbon on the plateau itself, but also create domino-effect impacts on weather systems across Europe and Asia with implications for plants, animals and ecosystems far beyond the plateau.

Ocean Collaboration

The world’s largest marine protected area, the Ross Sea MPA, was established in late 2017, leading conservationists to hope that momentum is building for designating additional sites around the world. In addition, legislation being managed by the international Convention on the Law of the Sea is being considered that would provide new protection to plants and animals living in the ocean and allow for new approaches to setting up MPAs. Even though the Ross Sea MPA agreement sunsets in 35 years, together these advances are seen as bringing fresh hope for ocean conservation.

Belt and Road Meets Environment

China’s US$1.25 trillion proposal to build six transportation corridors linking Asia and Europe, known as the Belt and Road Initiative, offers tremendous opportunity for incorporating sustainable design into a massive new infrastructure — or unprecedented potential for environmental disaster if done wrong. Big cats, in particular, could be under threat, with the proposed routes crossing territories for snow leopards, Amur tigers and Far Eastern leopards. Initial signs are that The Chinese government has expressed commitment generally to protect the environment, but documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative do not currently reflect this. Whether it makes environmental protection a priority on this massive initiative, only time — and, perhaps, international vigilance — will tell.

New Phones, New Concerns

The nature of 5G, the next wave of cellphone technology, is such that antennas may likely be scattered densely throughout communities, increasing the exposure of animals to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields. Because only limited research has been conducted exploring the impacts of such radiation on wildlife, we risk potential unintended harm to living things exposed to the fields as 5G systems are set into place. View Ensia homepage

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Planet of the insects? Heck no. Planet of the microbes.

Science has long struggled with estimating how many species of living things inhabit our planet. We’ve named some 1.5 million of them, but we know there are vastly more. Highly educated guesses of late have ranged from 2 million to 1 trillion, with most in the range of 11 million or fewer.

Now, using DNA analyses that increase the expected number of insect and closely related species to around 40 million, and factoring in the abundant microorganisms that live on or in them, a research team from the University of Arizona has come up with a new estimate: at least 1–6 billion.

The study, published in the September Quarterly Review of Biology, differs from previous calculations in three ways. First, it includes all major groups of organisms, not just the ones we can see. Second, it uses molecular analyses to distinguish between species that look alike. And third, it focuses on organisms that live in and on insects, itself an amazingly diverse group.

Relative abundance of different types of organisms based on known species (left), previously projected richness (center), and the current study. Courtesy of Brendan B. Larsen, Elizabeth C. Miller, Matthew K. Rhodes and John J. Wiens

The results, though still quite speculative, dramatically alter our understanding of how life is sliced and diced among different forms. Where insects were once considered by far the most abundant, in the new depiction of what the authors call “The Pie of Life” they are relegated to just part of the tiny wedge allotted to animals, while bacteria and other microorganisms make up the vast bulk — 70 to 90 percent — of the picture.

Improved awareness of species diversity provides a valuable foundation for efforts to understand and maintain the integrity of natural systems. The authors note, for instance, that in addition to dramatically expanding and refining our best estimate of the number of species on Earth, the analysis suggests that organisms that live with or in other organisms are the source of most of life’s diversity.

And, we might add, that 19th century mathematician Augustus de Morgan was onto something when he penned this memorable verse:

Great fleas have little fleas upon their backs to bite ’em,
And little fleas have lesser fleas, and so ad infinitum. View Ensia homepage

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 Climate change is coming home, and some have no choice but to get out of the way.

Last year in Alaska, with its coast thawing and eroding away, the town of Shishmaref voted to relocate. The village of Newtok, Alaska is seeking federal disaster relief to fund its move. In the Louisiana bayou, the native Isle de Jean Charles tribe has lost 98 percent of their land to the sea. It, too, is looking to move.

“Community displacements due to climate change are about so much more than moving possessions and finding new homes,” Maxine Burkett, a law professor at the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, said in a press release. “They uproot entire communities and tear at the fabric of life while threatening cohesiveness and culture, as well as doing harm to individuals, families and businesses. However, migrations and relocations don’t have to be chaotic if communities have the funding and other resources needed to take advantage of tools for acquiring new land and reestablishing their communities in safer, more secure areas.”

Moving entire communities is no simple task, so successful relocations will need to draw on a range of legal and policy tools. That’s the message from a report co-authored by Burkett and published by the Center for Progressive Reform, a Washington, D.C.–based nonprofit group with a nationwide network of member scholars.

The report, Reaching Higher Ground: Avenues to Secure and Manage New Land for Communities Displaced by Climate Change, reviews strategies communities can use to acquire and govern new land while preserving the heritage of the places they’re forced to leave behind.

Securing Land

One big challenge is securing new land for relocation. If communities can find ways to raise revenue, for example by taxing local businesses, they can buy land outright. Or communities might seek out government grants and loans.

Some funding is available through federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Last year, the Isle de Jean Charles tribe won a US$48 million federal grant, the first of its kind, to help with relocating inland.

Communities can also head to Congress. In 2010, for example, Congress allocated over 400 acres (160 hectares) of upland area to the Hoh Indian Tribe, a small coastal community in Washington state threatened by eroding land and rising seas.

“Native communities are the first and worst hit when it comes to this relocation issue,” says Burkett. Tribes can investigate whether they have historical claim to areas suitable for relocation. Such investigations may provide grounds for litigation aimed at repossessing these lands. Communities may also consider entering tribal lands into a federal trust.

Governing Land

After securing land, communities must rebuild. In the wake of resettlement, how can communities manage infrastructure and land for the benefit of all?

One path the report outlines is to incorporate as a city or town, which gives communities power over zoning and taxes, as well as enhanced eligibility for government grants. Another option is to form nonprofit community organizations like homeowners associations and community land trusts. Through such groups, people can manage common property and even buy new land.

Whatever kind of legal entity guides resettlement, groups can use legal tools to ensure an orderly transition. The report notes, for instance, that “[c]ommunities can influence land use, development, and ownership by placing legal conditions in property deeds” such as prohibitions on pollution or a ban on forest clear-cutting.

Communities might also use property deeds to maintain future integrity. They might, for instance, write deeds giving landowners lifetime ownership of a given parcel with control returning to the community after the owner dies. A deed could also give the community the right of first refusal for purchasing land back before it is sold to another entity.

Preserving Land and Culture

The report underscores the importance of equity and self-determination for relocating communities.

“We see climate impacts happening, and specifically relocation, happening first to communities that themselves have had a very fraught relationship with relocation over time and historically,” Burkett says. “There are multiple layers of justice, equity and fairness that we have to think about.”

Beyond concerns about what will happen to an area’s natural resources, the report notes, people’s identities are intertwined with the places in which they live and which are part of their history.

“Purchasing land and moving inland is fine,” says Chantel Cormardelle, executive secretary of the Isle de Jean Charles tribe. “But finding a mechanism to properly preserve the land that you’re leaving in a culturally appropriate way is first and foremost.”

The report notes that rights to resources such as minerals and timber can be separated from rights to own the land’s surface, opening a door for communities to sell land without losing access to economically important raw materials.

To help communities retain selected land rights the report recommends easements, which can guarantee ongoing access to land or the preservation of natural features and historic structures. For tribes, historical treaties may include provisions allowing members to use traditional lands for subsistence, provisions that can provide a legal basis for continued access to lands left behind.

Communities can also work to have such rights legislated. Near the Bering Sea, for example, residents of the native village of Newtok, faced with relocation, were able to secure legislation retaining their right to fish, hunt and gather on traditional lands.

Proactive Planning

Climate relocation is complex. While options abound, many are limited in scope and potential, requiring intensive coordination and creative problem solving. And, with disaster constantly looming on the horizon, pressure is on to prepare sooner rather than later.

“Every passing hurricane season, our community is at risk for a storm to come and just wipe it out,” says Cormardelle. “You just sit on pins and needles until after the hurricane season finishes, and then you can breather a little bit easier until the next one. It is a constant worry, but at the same time, we’re trying to be as proactive as we can to put things in place.” View Ensia homepage

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From migrating birds to pollinating bees to seed-dispersing plants, thousands of species depend on the quality of the aerosphere­ — the layer of air that surrounds our planet. Despite this, aircraft, wind farms, drones, telecommunication towers and other anthropogenic infrastructure increasingly crowd this critical habitat. Current species conservation efforts are generally focused on terrestrial and aquatic habitats, but not on airspace as a similarly important ecosystem. This needs to change, says a group of Canadian scientists in a recent article in Conservation Letters.

The authors want to see the airspace recognized and protected as an ecosystem that supports myriad species in a diversity of ways. It’s well known that many birds are killed in collisions with manmade structures — an estimated 44 million-plus per year in Canada alone. Efforts are underway to tackle this issue, but the authors argue for a more comprehensive framework that incorporates other threats such as aerial habitat fragmentation and chemical pollution, as well as for legislation that assigns responsibility for aerosphere conservation.

“The first step is for people to acknowledge that the space above us that looks so big and empty is actually a critical habitat for many, many animals,” says lead author Christina Davy, a wildlife research ecologist with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. “Once that’s in place, the doors open for the same kind of protection to be assigned to airspace that we already assign to terrestrial and aquatic habitats.”

Aerial habitats may be as important as wildlife corridors and marine parks for preserving biodiversity. The authors’ analysis of threatened vertebrate species suggests that roughly 20 percent rely to some extent on air space. The proportion may be much higher for the thousands of insects, plant seeds and microorganisms that drift or zoom through the air, they say, but right now, we don’t know what those numbers are. Research that investigates these gaps makes up only a small proportion of published studies in this field.

A recent surge in interest from the academic community may change that. “Scientists are producing really exciting research about how animals use the airspace,” says Davy, “But it hasn’t translated into the policy needed to conserve that habitat the way we do for other habitat types.”

For example, Davy says, with the right policy, an aerial protected area could be established to minimize harm to a host of migrating species like birds or insects. “It wouldn’t even need to be in place year-round to be an effective tool,” she notes.

The authors acknowledge that their proposal carries substantial logistical and political challenges. However, they argue that as humans continue to fill the skies with structures and aircraft, the airspace needs to be managed within a conservation framework that takes a bird’s-eye view. View Ensia homepage

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Florida’s Kissimmee River once flowed freely. Fish, birds and other wildlife dwelled in the wetlands it fed. But in the 1960s, spurred by public outrage over flooding, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers straightened the winding waterway and turned it into a drainage canal.

Flip forward a few decades and the river is returning — at least in part. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has partnered with the South Florida Water Management District on the Kissimmee River Restoration Project, aiming to restore a long section of the river to its natural state.

How can the Kissimmee team and others best restore degraded environments in the face of the unpredictable and tumultuous future that climate change promises? A big part of the answer is by building in resilience — the ability to resist change or to recover from disturbance in a way that preserves the essence of a system’s structure and function.

To that end, Britta Timpane-Padgham, a fisheries biologist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Northwest Fisheries Science Center, and colleagues have created an interactive decision support table that restoration professionals can use to choose strategies and goals that best boost climate change resilience in the systems in which they’re working.

Published last month in the scientific journal PLOS ONE, the table is based on a review of hundreds of studies of restoration projects covering a number of ecosystem types, including rivers, coasts, forests and lakes. Timpane-Padgham and colleagues reviewed the studies and identified 45 factors — ranging from genetic diversity to habitat connectivity to air carbon balance — that build resilience into restoration projects.

A few major themes popped up again and again. Connections between different areas let species move and migrate, which is crucial to resilience in many restoration efforts, including Florida’s Kissimmee River project. Habitat variability helps by making ecosystems more resilient to extreme climate events. A history of natural disturbance also can contribute to successful restoration.

The decision support table sorts resilience attributes into five categories based roughly on ecological scale: individual, population, community, ecosystem and process. Life span and reproductive strategy, for example, are individual attributes, while population density and genetic diversity are population attributes. Ecosystem attributes include habitat area, habitat condition and connections between different habitats. Each of the 45 attributes has two components: the project’s focus (whether it aims to restore a species, a habitat, or a whole system) and the project’s scale (whether it’s operating on one population, a single site, or an entire ecosystem).

Anyone who is interested can download and use the decision support table, which comes as an Excel spreadsheet (click the “S1 Table” link on the paper’s PLOS ONE page). For guidance on a project, practitioners simply choose an appropriate focus and scale, then the table returns a list of attributes in the five categories that can best help build resilience under that project’s unique circumstances. Users are encouraged to provide feedback to the project team so the tool can be improved in the future.

“In the face of climate change,” the study notes, “restoration approaches that promote natural sources of resilience are more likely to be successful than those that focus on creating optimal steady states.” View Ensia homepage

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Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-layer depleting compound, and each year humans are responsible for releasing millions of tons of it into the air. Recently, an international group of chemical engineers suggested an innovative strategy for reducing nitrous oxide levels globally: Partner an electricity-producing system known as a solar chimney power plant (SCPP) with reactive glass that can decompose nitrous oxide from the atmosphere into nitrogen and oxygen.

Courtesy de Richter, R., Ming, T., et al. “Removal of non-CO2 greenhouse gases by large-scale atmospheric solar photocatalysis.” Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 60 (2017): 68-96.

An SCPP is composed of a low canopy at the base for collecting air and absorbing sunlight, a tall hollow tower to control the release of clean air, and turbines that generate electricity. The researchers propose layering the solar chimney’s canopy area with glass plates coated with titanium dioxide, a product found in things like paint, sunscreen and food coloring that can use light to break down nitrous oxide. Because titanium dioxide is self-cleaning, non-toxic, cheap and stable, the report suggests, the result would be a sustainable and low-maintenance option for reducing nitrous oxide pollution while also producing power.

This dual-force technology has a long way to go before it can reach its full potential. For example, more research needs to be done on the ideal volume of titanium dioxide and the best temperature for reducing nitrous oxide in the atmosphere and producing solar electricity in a relatively cost-effective way. For more details, read the full study here. View Ensia homepage

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Climate change’s effects on humankind may prove most severe on the African continent, due to widespread poverty and unstable governance in many countries. Yet scientists and policy-makers on the continent suffer from a serious lack of access to climate science data. Future Climate for Africa aims to change the tide by conveying the latest scientific information to those who need it most as well as identifying knowledge gaps and filling them. In that vein, FCFA just published a new report that provides easy-to-digest fact sheets on climate trends and implications in various regions throughout the continent.

“Africa’s Climate: Helping Decision‑Makers Make Sense of Climate Information” compiles the latest science into 15 fact sheets. The first five fact sheets provide general climate information for central, east, southern and west Africa, with one additional fact sheet on southern Africa aimed at scientists. The next four fact sheets address “burning questions” related to climate science in the four regions. The report concludes with general reader-level fact sheets on six of the countries in which FCFA works: Malawi, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia.

Central Africa: Due to lack of climate data, the central region is severely understudied. Few weather stations exist through the Congo Basin, for example. With the second largest carbon stock of any country, the Democratic Republic of Congo is critical to offsetting greenhouse gas emissions and mitigating climate change. Yet it’s difficult given the current state of the science to predict how climate will affect rainfall or how changes in rainfall will affect carbon stores in the country’s rainforests. Many people in Central Africa rely on rain-fed agriculture, so understanding rainfall changes will be critical to preventing harmful impacts on health and livelihoods.

East Africa: Models show that East Africa will become hotter, with less predictable yet more intense rainfall, along with longer dry seasons in the coming decades. On the other hand, models sometimes provide conflicting and uncertain results, particularly with rainfall. Tropical Africa has two rainy seasons, “short rains” and “long rains,” interspersed with dry seasons. East Africa has experienced droughts during recent long rains seasons, yet models predict increasing rainfall in the decades ahead. Adaptation projects in this region will require flexibility so nations can respond to whatever changes actually occur. Floods are likely to affect sanitation in urban areas. Uganda relies on hydroelectric power and exports energy to Kenya, and will have to adapt to increased or decreased rainfall and address water release rules to hold more in high rainfall years.

Southern Africa: The subtropical area of southern Africa experiences four seasons and has a series of mountain ranges that influence weather. Oceans on either side of the region influence rainfall. Southern Africa is relatively well studied, with over 40 climate models simulating the next 5 to 50 years and some simulating up to 100 years. This fact sheet includes a primer on how climate simulations work and how they model uncertainty.

West Africa: People’s daily lives in the West Africa region are substantially affected by year-to-year climate variability, due to reliance on rain-fed agriculture and limited availability of clean water, among other things. The region has already experienced an average temperature rise of 1 °C (1.8  °F) since 1950, and in the Sahel average temperature has increased even more, mostly due to hotter nights. Climate models show increased temperatures, although predicted changes in rainfall vary among models.

Check out the full report here. View Ensia homepage

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