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Need another reason to protect and value green spaces? Here’s an intriguing one: the benefits humans receive from being exposed to the microscopic organisms found in nature. In a paper published recently in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, University College London clinical microbiologist Graham Rook notes that such microorganisms, which he calls “Old Friends,” are an important part of our evolutionary history, and reduced exposure caused by distancing ourselves from the natural environment is likely one of the reasons behind the growing epidemic of immune disorders worldwide. Rook recommends policy makers and others factor in exposure to beneficial microbes when enumerating the services ecosystems provide to humans, and calls for stepped-up research “that will enable us to design urban green spaces that provide not only the psychological input to our brains but also an optimized microbial input to our immune systems.”

Photo by EMSL (Creative Commons | Flickr)

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Today U.S. citizens across the country are preparing to observe two uniquely American events: Thanksgiving and Black Friday, the busiest shopping day of the year. If you are among them, consider including in your holiday plans some food for thought: 19 minutes with British economist Tim Jackson as he explores what compels us to “spend money we don’t have on things we don’t need to create impressions that won’t last on people we don’t care about” — and, more importantly, what we might do about it.

In his classic 2010 TED talk, “An Economic Reality Check,” Jackson, professor of sustainable development at the University of Surrey and author of Prosperity Without Growth, begins with the etymological roots of “prosperity” — the Latin word for “hope.”

Humans’ penchant for novelty and our tendency to use material things as a proxy for our importance, Jackson says, have caused a deep rift between that original meaning of prosperity and the meaning we ascribe to it today. Ironically, he points out, “we have now grown our economy so much that we stand in real danger of undermining hope.”

The solution? Jackson draws what he calls “a map of the human heart” — a four-slice pie depicting two sets of  diametrically opposed desires that compel us: novelty vs. tradition and self vs. other. Rather than corraling ourselves in the novelty-self quadrant, Jackson suggests, why not embrace all four? He points to innovations such as B corporations as ways to bring the other dimensions into economic practice and create meaningful prosperity.

“This is not about standing in the way of development, overthrowing capitalism, changing human nature,” he concludes. “What we’re doing is taking a few steps toward a more credible, robust, realistic vision of what it means to be human.”

Photo by CHARMERS (Creative Commons | Flickr)

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Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, is among the many world-saving ideas favored by techies, as well as by a general population enamored with the next cool thing that seems likely to translate well out of the lab and into society at large. But is additive manufacturing any better for the planet than traditional subtractive manufacturing? Recently, as we’ve written about previously, researchers at Michigan Technological University  found that the answer is yes, and now analysts at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory agree.

The difference between “additive” and “subtractive” is important, the ORNL researchers found. Manufacturing cabin brackets on airplanes from titanium using computer-aided software that optimizes the design and then prints in 3-D saved a manufacturer 1.56 pounds of titanium per bracket because the process built them from titanium powders instead out of titanium ingots. That may not seem like a lot — until you multiply it by the number of brackets involved. “Some of the more basic technical cabin systems have more than 250,000 [brackets] installed,” says Sachin Nimbalkar, a scientist at ORNL. When the researchers then looked at the life cycle of the different manufacturing processes, they found 3-D printing helped reduce carbon dioxide emissions per plane by 4,141 metric tons over a plane’s 30-year lifespan in part due to lower fuel demand from the lighter planes.

Photo by edenpictures (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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You might think putting a price tag on energy would help motivate people to trim their use. Not so, says a UCLA study that looked at the effectiveness of 156 energy information campaign experiments conducted between 1975 and 2012. In fact, the research, published in the journal Energy Policy and reported at Science for Environment Policy [pdf], suggests such a strategy might actually be counterproductive: When cost savings or monetary rewards were the focus of energy-saving messaging, recipients on average actually increased their energy use.

A smarter approach? Programs that involved giving people customized advice on how to save energy turned out to have the greatest impact, with a 13.5 percent average reduction in consumption. Also effective were information campaigns that compared people’s energy use with that of others, which yielded 11.5 percent savings.

Worth noting: The study also found that conservation efforts tended to drop off over time, suggesting a need for periodic nudges to keep energy-saving energized.

Photo by Digitalnative (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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All the corners of the globe have been explored, right? Think again. An international team of field biologists studying the mountainous region of southeastern Suriname — a wilderness area virtually without human influence and among the most remote and unexplored tracts of rainforest left on Earth — recently discovered 60 species, including reptiles, amphibians and insects that are likely new to science and may exist nowhere else on Earth. The team of researchers, led by Conservation International’s Rapid Assessment Program, also documented the vast array of ecosystem services in the region, including providing clean water for downstream uses such as food production, transportation and sanitation.

Suriname is located in the Guiana Shield, a vast wilderness expanse in South America that contains more than 25 percent of the world’s rainforest. According to expedition leader Leeanne Alonso, a former Conservation International scientist who is now with Global Wildlife Conservation, “southern Suriname is one of the last places on Earth where there is a large expanse of pristine tropical forest. The high number of new species discovered is evidence of the amazing biodiversity of these forests that we have only just begun to uncover.”

(The photo above shows a sleek, chocolate-colored “cocoa” frog (Hypsiboas sp.) that may be new to science. This species is arboreal, using circular discs on their fingers and toes to adeptly climb into the treetops. Image courtesy of Conservation International)

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Given its use for drinking, irrigation, sanitation and recreation, water has a tremendous impact on our physical and mental well-being. But water has a tremendous impact on our economic well-being as well. Just how tremendous is the focus of a new report by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “The Importance of Water to the U.S. Economy.”

The report notes that because energy, water supply and food production sectors are intertwined and directly depend on water as a commodity, every part of the economy is susceptible to disruption from changes in water supply. It also noted that water is undervalued — and predicted that more accurate valuation could drive big changes in water use efficiency and sustainability. And while determining the exact economic value of water is nearly impossible, EPA sees both increased demand and increased value in the future. “Competition for water will increase as consumption rises, water quality decreases, and the impacts of climate change are felt,” commented agency acting assistant administrator for water Nancy Stoner in a blog post on the report.

What’s next in the quest to quantify the economic value of water? The report identifies various opportunities for further research and projects already underway, including a National Water Census tracking potential changes in water availability to guide future water management and decision-making. Article by John Sisser; photo by @Doug88888 (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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Over the past several years, companies have been racing to buy land in developing countries. Such large-scale acquisitions enable them to grow commodity food crops for export or to turn into biofuel. But they often overlook the legal rights and wishes of local communities, and so the practice, known as land grabbing, has been raising eyebrows.

Now Coca-Cola, after coming under pressure from a campaign by the nonprofit Oxfam, has announced a “zero-tolerance“ policy for land grabs in its supply chain. It’s a significant step: Sugar is one of the biggest ingredients driving land grabs, and Coke uses a lot of it.

Chris Jochnick, Oxfam’s director of private sector development who led negotiations with Coke, explains that companies don’t need to stop investing in land altogether. (Coke and many other large companies often don’t do so directly; their suppliers do.) “It’s that they have to do it in a way that respects community rights and legal title,” he says. In land grabbing, “the land is either just taken outright or it’s bought at fire sale prices.”

Coke’s new policy, announced Nov. 7, includes disclosure of the top three countries and suppliers of its cane sugar; adherence to the principle of free, prior and informed consent and a requirement that Coke suppliers do the same; and an agreement to third-party social, environmental and human rights assessments, including of land conflicts in seven key sourcing countries.

Oxfam notes that although Nestlé has a land-grab policy in place, it doesn’t include supply chain disclosure and isn’t zero tolerance — so Coca-Cola appears to be leading the way on this issue. Jochnick says Oxfam will be following through to ensure the company upholds its commitments. Article by Rachel Cernansky; photo by C_Columbus (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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Are businesses responding appropriately to risk brought about by future water uncertainty? Yes and no, according to a new report from CDP and Deloitte. The CDP Global Water Report 2013 finds that although more companies are recognizing risks to their bottom line due to water stress, scarcity, quality, price and other reasons, their response is lacking, focusing too often on reducing use and reuse.

The report, titled “A need for a step change in water risk management,” is based on responses from 180 companies, including General Motors, Wal-Mart and General Electric. Recommending water stewardship as a road to water security, the report sees shortcomings between the amount of risk certain business sectors face and the response they have in place to address that risk. Take the energy sector, for example: Although 82 percent of respondents recognize risk to their direct operations due to water uncertainties, “only half of respondents report having board-level oversight of water issues and set concrete targets or goals.”

In a foreword to the report CDP CEO Paul Simpson draws a line between those companies that recognize risk and put in place concrete plans to address it and those that don’t, writing, “Investors and companies that understand the complexities of water and devise and implement a strategy that drives water stewardship will be the long term winners in an increasingly water stressed world.” Photo by pdorsey (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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Combine a weight, a rope, an LED, inspiration and some savvy crowdfunding, and what do you get? GravityLight. Developed by British inventors Martin Riddiford and Jim Reeves in response to a challenge by SolarAid to find inexpensive substitutes for health- and environment-harming kerosene lamps in areas without electricity, this pulley-based lamp produces up to 30 minutes of light each time the bag at the other end of the rope is hoisted. Buoyed by resources garnered in a beyond-their-wildest-dreams successful Indiegogo fundraising campaign, Riddiford, Reeves and team started rolling GravityLights off the production lines last month. The first lights will be provided free of charge to beta testers in Africa and Asia — with a goal of eventually being able to sell them for $5 each, bringing new light to some of the estimated 1.5 billion-plus people around the world who lack reliable access to electricity.

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Preparing to deal with climate change? Take a lesson from the octopus and other organisms, suggests University of Arizona ecologist and policy analyst Rafe Sagarin in an interview with Douglas Fischer of the Daily Climate. Living things, Sagarin points out, are remarkably good at adapting to new circumstances. How do they do it?  He points to four key strategies for dealing with risk and uncertainty we humans would do well to keep in mind as we get ready for a future shaped by climate change: Be decentralized, have redundant parts, form symbiotic networks and build from success rather than from failure. Photo by Morten Brekkevold (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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What are the biggest challenges facing corporate sustainability experts today? According to the just released BSR/GlobeScan State of Sustainable Business Survey 2013, 62 percent of respondents listed the integration of sustainability into core business operations as their primary concern. Coming in a distant second at 28 percent was convincing investors about the value of sustainability.

When asked about the extent to which sustainability is integrated into the core of their business, only one in five companies reported that they were close to achieving this goal. Perhaps of bigger concern, sustainability executives noted a lower level, and decreasing, engagement between sustainability and corporate functions such as investor relations, human resources, R&D, marketing and finance (a mere 16 percent said they engage with the finance side of the operation). On a positive note, the survey revealed ongoing high levels of interaction with corporate communications, public affairs, supply chain and the CEO’s office. Photo by epSos (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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Trees provide communities with many benefits: They offer energy-saving shade and shelter from wind, absorb carbon dioxide, create habitat for birds and other wildlife, and add beauty and value to homes and businesses. But how to quantify that benefit so it can be factored into decision making? The USDA Forest Service’s i-Tree suite of public domain software gives urban foresters, homeowners and others a way to put a dollar value on the ecosystem services urban trees offer for better planning, education and action. Tools include i-Tree Eco, which calculates the value of the entire city forest, i-Tree Streets, which puts a price tag on street trees, i-Tree Hydro, which simulates effects of changes in tree cover on watersheds, and i-Tree Design, which lets users see what benefits would accrue if they planted trees in various locations around their homes. Photo by Andreas (Flickr | Creative Commons)


According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, “The negative consequences of invasive species are far-reaching, costing the United States billions of dollars in damages every year. Compounding the problem is that these harmful invaders spread at astonishing rates.” On that last point a group of researchers from the Center for Limnology at the University of Wisconsin–Madison say not so fast. In a paper just published in the journal PLOS ONE, the researchers found that invasive species follow a “nearly universal pattern in ecology … that species are rare in most locations and abundant in a few.” According to Gretchen Hansen, a scientist with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the study’s lead author, “high abundance is the exception, not the rule.” The authors hope that the study will focus the lens of invasive species management on those exceptions where the invaders do in fact spread like wild fire. Likening the fight against invasive species to that of human disease outbreaks, the study’s authors suggest attempting to identify “hot spots” where prolificacy is most likely and concentrating efforts in those places  in other words, spending the hundreds of millions of dollars the U.S. dedicates to invasive species management where it will have the greatest impact. Photo by David Perez (Wikipedia | Creative Commons)

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Nine out of 10 Americans discard food unnecessarily thanks to a nonuniform labeling system that blurs the relationship between food safety and dates listed on food packaging. That’s one of many sobering food-waste facts found in a new report by the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Harvard Food Law and Policy Clinic, The Dating Game: How Confusing Labels Land Billions of Pounds of Food in the Trash. The report, released last month, looks at the dysfunctional evolution of the current food-dating system, discusses how current practices cause billions of pounds of edible food to be thrown away every year, and proposes three concrete solutions to reducing one of the major sources of food waste in America: 1) make “sell by” dates invisible to the consumer, 2) establish a uniform dating system for consumer use, and 3) improve the use of safe food handling instructions.

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What will the world be like in 2030? Your guess is as good as ours — but the National Intelligence Council’s is probably even better. Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds offers an insightful look at where current trajectories are taking us, along with suggestions as to what we might do to shift them toward a future we desire. Included are discussions of four megatrends (individual empowerment; diffusion of power; demographic patterns; and food, water, energy nexus), six game-changers (crisis-prone global economy, governance gap, potential for increased conflict, wider scope of regional instability, impact of new technologies and role of the United States), and four potential worlds (Stalled Engines, Fusion, Gini-out-of-the-Bottle and Nonstate World).

Among other things, the report predicts growth in global food, water and energy demand by 35, 40 and 50 percent, respectively, noting, “We are not necessarily headed into a world of scarcities, but policymakers and their private sector partners will need to be proactive to avoid such a future.”

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Can a plane fly around the world using only solar energy? Google thinks so. The company recently announced a new partnership with the Switzerland-based long-range aircraft project Solar Impulse. Swiss pioneers Bertand Piccard and Andre Borschberg are the founders, pilots and driving force behind the first airplane that can fly day and night without fuel.

Future360 — an online video network showcasing cleantech innovation — recently produced a video update of the project and this new collaboration. The revolutionary carbon fiber airplane covered with solar panels has the wingspan of a Boeing 747 but only weighs about as much as a small car. After several European flights, Solar Impulse successfully crossed the United States in May 2013 — flying from Moffett Field in Mountain View, Calif., to New York City’s JFK airport over a two-month period. The partnership with Google helps bring Solar Impulse closer to its goal of flying around the world using only solar energy in 2015.

Does this mean we’ll all be flying around in solar-powered airplanes soon? Probably not, but the project is helping advance solar technologies by pushing the boundaries of future applications in the aviation industry and beyond. Photo courtesy of Solar Impulse

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When looking at the environmental problems we face today, the challenges can quickly add up to a seemingly insurmountable pile. Big-picture issues like climate change aside, when you really look closely, everything seems to have a consequence attached to it. What should you do with those inline skates in the basement that are too broken down and beat up to give to the Goodwill? And wouldn’t it be nice if your favorite restaurant would stop using styrofoam to-go containers, so you could enjoy your food without the slight taste of guilt?

Well, the folks at EcoApprentice feel your pain. The site looks to use the popular social tool of crowdsourcing to come up with “EcoSolutions” to “EcoChallenges.” Members post their challenges — often what to do with the byproduct of some business operation — and the site’s social network of students and professionals chimes in with possible solutions. Rewards for chosen ideas range from recognition in helping to solve a problem to sizable cash payments.

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Heavy metals released by industries such as gold mining and battery manufacturing can make water unfit for human consumption. Developed countries have technologies for removing such pollutants from drinking water, but in developing countries the cost of conventional water purification systems is often too high to make them practical.

Now, researchers from Redeemer’s University in Nigeria and the University of Pottsdam in Germany have hit upon a possible economical alternative: papaya seeds mixed with clay. Combining Nigerian kaolinite clay with papaya seeds obtained from local markets and dried in the sun, the scientists were able to produce a “hybrid clay” that successfully filtered lead, cadmium and nickel from contaminated water. Noting that it is easy to make, employs readily accessible materials, and can be used over and over, the team called  the new adsorbent “a highly efficient alternative to activated carbon for water treatment.” Photo by Tatters:) (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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Which is more environmentally friendly: purchasing mass-produced small plastic components or making your own using a 3-D printer? Michigan Tech researchers did a life-cycle analysis of the energy inputs for three plastic products — a toy block, a juicer and a water spout — starting with extraction of raw materials and ending with either a final product printed at home or a product shipped from an overseas manufacturer to a U.S. port. They found that, contrary to expectations, producing an object with 3-D manufacturing uses 41 to 64 percent less energy and has a correspondingly smaller carbon footprint  than mass producing and shipping that same object from overseas. Project leader Joshua Pearce notes 3-D printing is cheaper, too — providing even more motivation for foraying into the brave new world of do-it-yourself stuff. Photo by Creative Tools (Flickr | Creative Commons)

Landfill Harmonic  

What do you get when you cross an empty oil can with kitchen utensils? Music, if you live in the slums of Cateura, Paraguay. Go to ensia.us/landfillharmonic to watch a youth orchestra perform with instruments made of trash from the remnants of our throwaway civilization.

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If knowledge is power, global conservation just got a chance to bulk up big-time with the publication of Conservation Biology for All, a top-tier textbook edited by Navjot Sodhi and Paul Ehrlich, published by Oxford University Press and made available as a free download to anyone in the world with an Internet connection.

“If a book could receive a standing ovation — this one is a candidate,” writes a reviewer in the journal Ecology. “Sodhi and Ehrlich have created a comprehensive introduction to conservation biology that is accessible intellectually, and financially, to a broad audience — indeed it is conservation biology for all.”

The content was written by world-renowned conservation leaders, including one chapter on habitat destruction by William Laurance and another on climate change by Thomas Lovejoy. Read a summary and download a PDF or buy a print copy at Mongabay.com. Photo by Lars Veldscholte (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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The world is full of people in need of safe drinking water and sanitation, people engineering solutions, and people who would be glad to help save lives by boosting access to healthful water infrastructure. How to connect them? WaterCredit, a microfinance program, has provided more than 100,000 small loans totaling more than $17.4 million since 2003 to families and communities to bring clean water infrastructure to homes and villages in India, Bangladesh, Kenya and Uganda. The program counts on its high loan repayment record — 99 percent since 2007 — to recycle funds into further projects. Photo by Sustainable Sanitation (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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Power generation is taking a green step forward. Street tiles that capture the kinetic energy of footsteps — to power lights, digital signs, Wi-Fi zones and cell phone charging stations — have been installed at the entrance to a London shopping mall, on a plaza in Melbourne and at the finish line of the Paris Marathon, the largest installation to date. The waterproof tiles made by Pavegen are produced from recycled rubber tires and can be installed in new construction or retrofitted into existing floor systems. Pavegen’s founder told National Geographic that he expects economies of scale to bring the price to $50 per tile and hopes to see “thousands of Pavegen tiles permanently embedded in urban areas worldwide, turning cities into power plants.” Article by Monique Dubos; image courtesy of Pavegen

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Larger animals are more energy efficient than smaller ones — a phenomenon known as Kleiber’s Law — and it’s long been assumed that cities follow a similar pattern. A research team led by Boise State economics professor Michail Fragkias recently tested the notion using data on carbon dioxide emissions as a proxy for energy and surprisingly found no energy efficiency economy of scale between big cities and small ones. The discovery suggests potent opportunities for increasing efficiency through strategic growth as cities’ share of global population booms from just over 50 percent today to a projected up to 90 percent in 2100. Photo by Camerons Personal Page (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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For the first time ever, oceanographers have recorded an enormous wave breaking three miles below the ocean’s surface in the South Pacific’s Samoan Passage. Why is this important? These 800-foot tall “skyscraper waves” transport heat, energy, carbon and nutrients around the globe. Where and how they break is important for not only the planet’s climate, but also the accuracy of global climate models. In a study published online this month in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, Matthew Alford, an oceanographer at the University of Washington, notes, “Climate models are really sensitive not only to how much turbulence there is in the deep ocean, but to where it is. The primary importance of understanding deep-ocean turbulence is to get the climate models right on long timescales.” Water is surging northward from Antarctica through the Samoan Passage, Alford says, at a rate of 6 million cubic meters of water per second — the equivalent of about 35 Amazon Rivers. With an improved understanding of circulation in the world’s oceans, scientists will be able to fine tune future climate change projections. Photo by MarkTipple (Flickr | Creative Commons)

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