Increasing standards of living mean more — literally hundreds of millions more — computers, cell phones and other electronic devices are being deployed in developing nations. But what happens when these hot new devices are no longer wanted?
Researchers from two institutions in India — the PEC University of Technology in Chandigarh and Surya World Technical Campus in Punjab — recently published a study in the International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management estimating the number of desktop and laptop computers that will be disposed of in the developing nation by 2025. In the next 10 years, 126 million desktops and 900 million laptops are expected to exceed their life expectancy, flooding Indian e-waste facilities with over a billion devices containing environmentally toxic arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and more.
Ants are mighty little creatures. They inhabit every continent on Earth except Antarctica. They can lift 10 to 50 times their body weight. And now, one new study suggests, they may have the potential to help curb global warming.
In “Ants as a Powerful Biotic Agent of Olivine and Plagioclase Dissolution,” Ronald Dorn of Arizona State University studied calcium-magnesium silicate mineral dissolution by ants, termites, tree roots and bare ground at six sites in Arizona and Texas over 25 years. Ants emerged as the leader in promoting mineral decay, a process in which calcium and magnesium released by mineral decay combine with carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce limestone or dolomite. In fact, ant nests appear to enhance mineral dissolution by two to three orders of magnitude.
So what does this mean for carbon and the climate? Dorn suggests ant-based carbon sequestration may have contributed to Earth’s cooling during the Cenozoic Era, and proposes using ants as a model for developing new strategies to combat human-induced climate change through enhanced mineral dissolution and more efficient accumulation of calcium carbonate from atmospheric CO2. Photo by Troup Dresser (Flickr | Creative Commons) — August 8, 2014
Last year, Beijing’s concentration of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) averaged nearly four times the World Health Organization’s recommended safe level of 25 micrograms per cubic meter. On bad days this January, that number soared to over 600. It’s safe to say factories, power plants and automobile usage in the region are leaving the city’s 20 million residents smothered in smog.
Now, the Chinese government is enlisting the help of tech industry giant IBM to reach its cleaner air goals. By using sensors, satellites and analytics, IBM will be able to predict smog levels up to three days in advance. Perhaps more importantly, the company’s models will be able to pinpoint the sources of smog down to the street level, helping government officials with policy, planning and decision making.
This partnership with IBM comes as Beijing officials are investing $160 billion in an effort to reduce PM 2.5 concentrations by 25 percent by 2017. IBM’s effort to closely monitor pollutant levels and sources may be the city’s strongest weapon in its “War on Smog.” Photo by Safia Osman (Flickr | Creative Commons) — August 6, 2014
As writer Rowan Jacobsen explores in our recent feature “Has Meat Met Its Match?,” animal agriculture’s hefty environmental footprint is creating interest in exploring ways to meet humans’ growing appetite for animal protein that extend beyond beef, chicken and pork. In some places, that exploration is going underwater.
Aquaculture, or fish farming, is the fastest growing sector of animal food production in the world, providing half of all seafood consumed by humans. That number is expected to rise, with another 40 million tons of seafood needed by 2030 to meet demand.
Is a fish sandwich any better for the environment than a cheeseburger or pork tenderloin? It is more efficient from a feed perspective. Nine pounds of feed will produce around 7.5 pounds of salmon, a far better feed conversion ratio than those for cattle and swine. In addition, aquaponics — raising fish and edible plants in a single system in which fish wastes serve as plant food — is being hailed as a particularly efficient solution to the challenge of feeding a booming population.
It’s not all smooth sailing on the aquaculture seas, however. Organic wastes from aquaculture can foul waterways. Growing feed for fish farms already requires a land area the size of the United Kingdom, and harvesting wild species for fishmeal strains marine resources. And at the end of the day, critics argue that jam-packed fishponds aren’t much different than regular feedlots, requiring antibiotics, creating a genetic monoculture and polluting the surrounding landscape.
But, much like traditional agriculture, sustainable practices exist for aquaculture, including only cultivating nonnative species in fish tanks or using lower stock densities to prevent disease. When it comes to satisfying the world’s carnivorous cravings, aquaculture and aquaponics may be a few more tools to add to the sustainability toolbox. — August 1, 2014
In our recent feature, “Has Meat Met Its Match?,” writer Rowan Jacobsen explores ways people can (now and possibly in the future) reduce the environmental and food security impacts of their diets, including entomophagy (bug-eating), synthetic meat and vegetarian substitutes. If none of those fits your needs, there are plenty of other ways to eat meat more sustainably.
Maybe cutting back would work for you. Meatless Mondays — an idea initiated during World War I to conserve resources — is being revived as a way to encourage people to forgo meat one day a week for environment and health benefits, including water conservation and reduced fossil fuel dependence.
Another approach is to do a species switch-out. It takes far less grain (and therefore cropland) to produce a pound of pig or poultry than to produce a pound of cow — so choosing chicken fajitas over beef tacos could help.
If you’re really craving a burger or succulent steak, buying beef from well-managed grazing systems can be another easy swap for sustainability. Compared to feedlots, such systems reduce soil erosion, water pollution and biodiversity loss (though production of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, may be higher). Scientists are also working to reduce cattle’s environmental footprint through improved diet, genetics and manure management. — July 30, 2014
For many, sitting alone in a vehicle in a traffic jam on the way to work is a fact of life. But are there policies cities could consider to encourage commuters to ditch the automobile for a bike, improving public health and reducing the environmental toll of motorized transportation?
The verdict? Investing in bike infrastructure pays off. Using a simulation model, the authors determined that policy options such as creating separate bike paths and reduced-speed, bike-friendly streets can yield benefits 10 to 25 times greater than the cost.
“To our knowledge, this is the first integrated simulation model of future specific bicycling policies,” the authors write. “Our projections provide practical evidence that may be used by health and transport policy makers to optimize the benefits of transport bicycling while minimizing negative consequences in a cost-effective manner.” Photo by sfbike (Creative Commons | Flickr) — July 25, 2014
Writing in Foreign Policy, journalist Jonathan Kalan argues that the media, environmentalists and non-governmental organizations focus too much on problems in the world’s megacities (cities where the population is greater than 10 million), such as air pollution and traffic. “Megacities hold enormous value for the developing world,” Kalan writes, “and ensuring that they deliver this value starts, fundamentally, with no longer seeing them as utter catastrophes.”
Kalan breaks his piece, “10 Million Sardines in a Sea of Skyscrapers,” into six sections based on what he sees as major myths about megacities, such as, among others, “Megacities pose the most dire development crisis of the 21st century” and “Megacities can’t be ‘healthy,’ because they’re killing the planet” — and then gives his response, first in pithy answers and then by way of in-depth analysis.
As more and more of the world’s people become urban dwellers, critical examinations of where we will be living, such as Kalan’s, are important to make sure we get the future right. Photo by Deepak Gupta (Flickr | Creative Commons) — July 23, 2014
On a hot, sunny day, dark roofs and pavements in Houston reach a smoldering 160 degrees. Startling facts like this spurred action at the municipal level, including passing an energy conservation code requiring cool roofs on certain buildings and initiating an effort to plant a million shade trees in just three to five years.
“Cool Policies for Cool Cities: Best Practices for Mitigating Urban Heat Islands in North American Cities”— a report published recently by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy — documents actions 26 cities around the U.S. and Canada have taken to address urban heat island challenges as a way to provide other cities with ideas of their own. From Boston to Cincinnati to Los Angeles, cities are employing a spectrum of strategies to reduce urban heating, including modifying stormwater management, installing reflective pavement and planting rooftop gardens. After surveying the cities and analyzing their findings, the study’s authors recommended, among other things, that city governments lead by example, implementing heat island policies and integrating new technologies on their own buildings.
A key takeaway from the report is that cities are making progress when it comes to urban heat island policies and programs, but more can be done.
“More than half the cities noted that they have made significant progress on policy or program implementation,” the study says. “However, no city reported that they had met or nearly met any of their UHI-related goals. Additional or improved mitigation actions are still clearly needed.” Photo by Andrew Dallos (Flickr | Creative Commons) — July 18, 2014
Ever wonder if all those strange sounding ingredients in your shampoo, deodorant or lipstick are healthy or harmful for you and the environment? The Environmental Working Group has the answer. The D.C.-based public interest group is celebrating the 10-year anniversary of its Skin Deep cosmetics database. According to EWG, people in the U.S. apply “an average of 126 unique ingredients on their skin daily.” The Skin Deep website and mobile app rate and review 70,000 products and almost 11,500 ingredients. Simply enter the product name or scan a bar code and you’ll be able to tell in seconds if your hair gel or sunscreen contains ingredients known to cause allergies, developmental issues or even cancer. Photo by Pomo Mama (Flickr | Creative Commons) — July 16, 2014
As the world’s climate changes and severe weather events become more common one phenomenon of particular concern is human migration. How will people respond as precipitation patterns change, storms batter coastlines, crops struggle after continual years of drought? A study in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences compares how natural disasters and variations in climate influence migration, finding that the latter seems to have a greater effect than the former.
The study looked at more than 7,000 households in Indonesia over a 15-year time period. Though sudden disasters obviously do create situations where people are forced to move, the researchers found that such moves are more likely to be temporary or short-distance, whereas climatic variation more often results in permanent moves. Photo by United Nations Photo(Flickr | Creative Commons) — July 11, 2014
Be prepared: The world is not only getting more crowded, it’s also getting older. A recent Pew Research Center report looked at population trends for the U.S., China, India and 20 other countries and surveyed public opinion about them. According to the report, by 2050:
Three times as many people will be 65 or older
Most people in Japan, South Korea and Germany will be over 50
One in five Americans will be 65 or older
Most countries will have more people over age 65 than under age 15
The number of dependents (people under 15 and 65+) per 100 workers will grow to 66 in the U.S. and a whopping 96 in Japan
The opinion survey portion of the study found that almost 9 in 10 Japanese and 7 in 10 Chinese consider aging a major problem in their countries. Only a quarter of Americans consider aging a problem in the U.S. Potential challenges of aging cited by the report include economic slowdown and stressed social support system.
In a world where climate disasters, pollution, and biodiversity loss dominate the news cycle, it’s easy to lose sight of the exciting, sustainable solutions being developed everyday. Enter Sustainia100 2014, a guided tour of 100 promising, outside-the-box innovations addressing today’s environmental challenges.
Unveiled last week in Oslo, Norway, Sustainia100 2014 showcases solutions in 10 sectors, including buildings, fashion, transportation and health. From clay refrigerators that cool using evaporation to a saltwater air conditioner that reduces energy consumption by 40 percent, the publication is filled with ideas intended to energize readers about sustainability and move beyond the doom-and-gloom dialogue.
“Reading about how projects and technologies are innovating transportation, advancing our food production, slowing down fashion, and speeding up resource efficiency, you cannot help but be amazed by the opportunities present to start creating sustainable industries, communities and cities,” Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, wrote in the Sustainia100 foreword. “Sustainia100 is a guide to a green and desirable future within our reach and it is a guide away from threats and insecurities.” Download your free copy — and nominate projects for inclusion in Sustainia100 2015 — at sustainia.me/solutions. — June 25, 2014
When it comes to wind power, the sky isn’t the limit — it’s the opportunity. Researchers at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the University of Delaware and energy firm DNV GL are investigating the potential of airborne wind energy to boost the renewable energy source’s effectiveness.
In a recent study published in Renewable Energy, the researchers determined that winds between Earth’s surface and about 10,000 feet could produce over 7.5 terawatts of electricity, more than triple the global demand. One of the keys to this airborne wind power is using recurring atmospheric features called “low-level jets.” The jets, which usually blow at 30–50 mph, offer stronger, steadier winds than those that turn turbines on the Earth’s surface. The best locations for airborne wind energy include the Horn of Africa, tropical ocean locations and the U.S. Great Plains.
Tapping into wind sources miles above the ground won’t be easy, but it’s far from impossible. Airborne wind power industry leaders are looking at tethered devices that could capture energy at various altitudes to maximize efficiency.
The next step? The team is now working on developing a study to look at higher-level wind energy potential year round. Photo by Niels Linneberg (Creative Commons | Flickr) — June 20, 2014
Earlier this week, in the second installment of our Envision 2050 series, in which experts from around the world describe their ideal for human systems in 2050 and what it would take to get there, we asked five visionary urban planners, designers and architects for their views on what cities would be like in 2050. One of those experts, Tony Chan, associate director of the design firm Arup, noted that China’s current urbanization is unprecedented and pointed to a startling fact: “Over the next two decades China will potentially build 20,000 to 50,000 new skyscrapers and have more than 220 cities with populations of more than 1 million.” The country, Chan said, has cities that embody both a romantic and dystopian view of future cities — with smart, connected and green technologies alongside high pollution and resource scarcity.
For more on the future (and present) of China’s cities, you might want to check out the new three-part series in the South China Morning Post about the rise of Asia’s megacities and the issues they face. The first installment was published last week and in it writer Vanessa Collingridge has some startling figures of her own. “In 2010,” she writes, “just nine of the world’s megacities were located in Asia; scroll forward 15 years and 21 of the projected 39 megacities will be situated here, with the biggest growth in population expected to take place in the new or lesser-known cities in South and East Asia.” Photo by sebastien batardy (Flickr | Creative Commons) — June 17, 2014
Feeding a growing planet means getting food waste under control. With one-third of all food being wasted or lost, that’s no small task. But here’s some good news. Researchers are hot on the trail of some promising new solutions, with a bonus: They don’t involve synthetic, environmentally damaging chemicals.
The scientists, working at the Centre of Excellence for Post-harvest Biotechnology at Nottingham University’s Malaysia Campus, have been finding ways to turn natural products such as chitosan obtained from crustacean shells and gum arabic — acacia tree sap — into small particles that can be sprayed on fruits and vegetables to delay ripening and lengthen shelf life. So far, nature’s food waste solutions are working. The researchers found that particles created from these natural products delayed ripening of tomatoes and increased dragon fruit life by 28 days.
“We believe that developing post-harvest management techniques using natural products is the way forward, especially since these natural biodegradable products we are researching can also contribute to traditional medicine and pharmacology as we learn more about our natural environment,” CEPB director Asgar Ali wrote in an article for The Conversation. “Hopefully too, we can develop better ways of reducing the huge amount of food loss that takes place and focus on getting food to those who need it.” Photo by the_ewan (Flickr | Creative Commons) — June 13, 2014
Want to know what the water quality is like in the lake down the street? What’s being dumped in the river at the edge of town? Or how your local drinking water sources are being protected? Good news: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has an app for that.
The EPA recently released an enhanced version of its “How’s My Waterway” website and smartphone app, giving interested individuals anywhere access to water quality reports, pollutant discharge permits and restoration efforts at their fingertips. Users can enter either a ZIP code or a city name or use the program’s GPS technology to find nearby water bodies. The agency even released an application designed for museum kiosks with touch screens.
So what’s the point in making a water quality app? “Communities and neighborhoods across the U.S. want to know that their local lakes, rivers and streams are healthy and safe to enjoy with their families, and providing that information is a priority for EPA,” Nancy Stoner, acting assistant administrator for EPA’s Office of Water, said in a press release.
Check out the “How’s My Waterway?” website here. Article by John Sisser. — June 11, 2014
It’s one of the first lessons we learn as kids — sharing is the right thing to do. Now, a new study by marketing communications agency Havas Worldwide reports that consumers are becoming more and more interested in reusing, donating or sharing goods and services as an alternative to owning them.
“The New Consumer and The Sharing Economy” reports the findings from a 10,574-person survey across 29 markets around the world. The survey found that more than two-thirds of mainstream consumers responding (69 percent) agreed with the statement that overconsumption is putting our society and planet at risk. At the same time, 52 percent said consuming less would destroy jobs.
The report presents the idea of collaborative consumption as “the next wave of consumerism,” with around 65 percent of mainstream consumer respondents agreeing with the statement that society would be better if people shared more and owned less.
What’s the draw? For 69 percent of these respondents, saving money was the biggest benefit, with feeling active and useful, reducing one’s carbon footprint and supporting small companies also topping the list. The report’s authors suggest businesses may want to take note of the sharing trend — nearly three quarters of mainstream consumer respondents admired brands that encourage customers to recycle or resell their company’s products. Article by John Sisser, with a hat tip to Sustainable Brands for calling our attention to the story. Photo by malenga (Flickr | Creative Commons) — June 5, 2014
After hurricanes and other storms along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, the USGS takes aerial photos and compares them to pre-storm images. The practice, which has taken place since 1995, has led to nearly 150,000 photos — too many for the USGS to analyze on its own. So the organization launched iCoast, which crowdsources identification of changes to coastal lands after extreme storms by inviting everyday people to tag affected areas for issues such as beach and dune erosion, overwash, and dead vegetation. The tool isn’t just meant to tell the story of what’s happened as a result of these storms; the USGS sees it as a way to better predict coastal erosion, which will help residents and community managers understand where coasts might be most vulnerable.
“Computers cannot yet automatically identify damages and geomorphic changes to the coast from the oblique aerial photographs,” said Sophia B. Liu, a fellow in the USGS’s Mendenhall Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program, in a statement. “Human intelligence is still needed to finish the job.” Photo from the U.S. Geological Survey — June 3, 2014
The impacts of climate change to America’s coasts have been well documented, but what about challenges already unfolding in remote inland sections of the country? This week Climate Central’s Bobby Magill visits the sprawling Navajo Nation in the Southwest U.S. to see how local communities are dealing with a 20-year drought while slowly adapting to a warmer world. As Magill writes, the Four Corners region “is truly the front line of climate change.” Photo by Wolfgang Staudt (Flickr | Creative Commons) — May 30, 2014
The survey, supported by Transportation for America, sampled 18- to 34-year-olds across 10 U.S. cities with public transportation systems in varying stages of development: mature (e.g., New York City), growing (e.g., Minneapolis–St. Paul) and aspiring (e.g., Indianapolis). Researchers found that public transportation access is among the top three criteria for 66 percent of Millennials when choosing where to live. Furthermore, 86 percent of Millennials felt it was important for their city to offer low-cost, affordable public transportation.
The prioritization of public transportation access was accompanied by a desire for less automobile dependence. Nearly two-thirds of Millennials (64 percent) said they want to be less reliant on a car primarily because of the cost involved, and a majority of those surveyed in all cities thought opportunities to live and work in their city without relying on a car was important.
“These findings confirm what we have heard from the business and elected leaders we work with across the country,” James Corless, director of Transportation for America, said in a statement issued by the Rockefeller Foundation. “The talented young workforce that every region is trying to recruit expects to live in places where they can find walkable neighborhoods with convenient access to public transportation. Providing those travel and living options will be the key to future economic success.” Article by John Sisser. Photo by Sakeeb Sabakka (Flickr | Creative Commons) — May 28, 2014
What has a top speed of 270 kilometers per hour (167 mph) and doesn’t use a single drop of gasoline or diesel? The new Spark-Renault SRT_01E race car. The supercharged, zero emissions electric vehicle was designed specifically for the inaugural Formula E race series. Launching this fall, Formula E will feature races through the streets of some of the world’s most iconic cities, including London, Buenos Aires and Los Angeles.
Speaking at the recent Fortune Brainstorm Green conference in Laguna Niguel, Calif., Formula E Holdings CEO Alejandro Agag said the series has several goals, including connecting race fans with environmental issues through sport and serving as a test bed for emerging electric vehicle technologies.
To overcome the fact that the cars can only run about 25 minutes on a single charge, Formula E races will include multiple drivers and cars on the same team. When asked what the cars sound like, Agag responded that the high-intensity buzzing from the pod race scene in “Star Wars: Episode I” is a good approximation.
The series kicks off Sept. 13, 2014, in Beijing. Photo courtesy of Formula E — May 23, 2014
Clean drinking water is a basic necessity, and figuring out more efficient ways to purify water will be more important than ever as we move into a more crowded and less predictable future. At Clarkson University in Potsdam, N.Y., chemical and biomolecular engineering professor Selma Mededovic Thagard is using a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency grant to scale up a water purification method that avoids chemicals, such as chlorine, common in other treatment methods. Instead, “we are pretty much using water to treat water,” Thagard says, “when we apply very high voltage and we create plasma, we create lightning inside of the water” to purify it. Watch the video below for a full explanation from Thagard.
The winners of the inaugural Resonate Awards were announced today at the Fortune Brainstorm Green conference in Laguna Niguel, Calif. Sponsored by the California Institute of Technology’s Resnick Sustainability Institute, the awards recognize innovative and potentially game-changing solutions to some of Earth’s most pressing energy and environmental challenges.
The five recipients of this year’s award represent a diverse array of disciplines. Thomas Francisco Jaramillo of Stanford University has developed catalysts that drive chemical reactions needed for renewable energy production and storage. Shinichi Komaba from Tokyo University of Science and Kyoto University has created safer lithium-ion batteries for energy storage. Javad Lavaei of Columbia University has advanced sophisticated mathematics for optimizing the electric smart grid. Sarah Kearney, founder and director of PRIME Coalition, has started a new investment model to fund innovative ventures focused on global social problems. And Jay Whitacre, associate professor at Carnegie Mellon University and founder and CTO of Aquion Energy, is commercializing an energy storage solution for intermittent renewable energy sources.
“Our goal is to bring hope for the planet by shining a light on unheralded innovators who are on the cusp of big, important ideas,” said Harry Atwater, director of the Resnick Sustainability Institute and Howard Hughes Professor of Applied Physics at Caltech, in a press release announcing the awards. “While many computer and health innovations get honored, those in sustainability are often overlooked because they are hard to explain, and their impact has a very long time horizon. But without these, the future is at risk.” — May 19, 2014
There is a long-standing sense that organic farms are better for biodiversity than are conventional farms. But how much better? The answer to that is important when weighing the trade-offs between focusing on boosting biodiversity on farmed land (“land sharing”) versus using less land more intensively with higher-yielding conventional farming (“land sparing”).
A study just published in the Journal of Applied Ecology provides strong evidence that the benefits are indeed bountiful. Gathering results of 94 previous studies of farmland biodiversity into one giant meta-analysis, researchers from the U.K., Sweden and Switzerland looked at both species richness (the number of different taxonomic groups represented) and functional diversity (the types of ecological functions performed). They found that across all study sites, biodiversity was an average of 34 percent higher on organic farms than on conventional farms.
The biggest beneficiaries? From a species standpoint, plants showed the greatest biodiversity boost, with insects, birds and microorganisms also substantially higher on organic farms. Functionally, pollinators appeared to benefit most from organic farming, with decomposers showing little difference.
“This analysis affirms that organic farming usually has large positive effects on average species richness compared with conventional farming,” the researchers concluded. “Given the large areas of land currently under agricultural production, organic methods could undoubtedly play a major role in halting the continued loss of diversity from industrialized nations.” Photo courtesy of Sally (Creative Commons | Flickr), and a hat tip to Science for Environment Policy for sharing the story. — May 16, 2014
Earlier this week in an op-ed for this magazine, Cara Pike, founder and director of the Social Capital Project, welcomed the shift in the climate conversation from debate about science to emphasis on impacts, but said that a further step is needed: More focus on solutions to show that change is possible. “This is not about putting on rose-colored glasses and minimizing the very real threat we face — it’s about shifting attention to what we have to be hopeful for when we move to low-carbon innovations,” Pike wrote in “There’s Hope at the End of the World as We Know It.”
Now, two projects doing just that have come to our attention. The first, Momentum for Change, is an annual initiative from the United Nations Climate Change secretariat. Through an application process, the UN secretariat selects entries that show concrete examples of people, industries, cities and countries already applying successful responses to climate change. This year Momentum for Change is looking for applications that show climate action positively affecting the urban poor and the important role women play in responding to climate change, among other areas. Check out the video below for more information, and apply here.
The second project is from Nuin-Tara Key and Tom Miller. Key, a research and policy consultant in climate change and urban development, and Miller, a filmmaker, are setting out on a project that will take them from the Caribbean to Finland in the late summer and fall of 2014. Dubbed Our Place on Earth, the duo’s project will be made up of three components: 1) a documentary about community-based responses to climate change already having an impact, 2) a tool kit with ways to replicate local solutions in other places around the world, and 3) video workshops for communities to help them learn how to share their stories about successfully responding to climate change. Photo from Momentum for Change video.