A surprising encounter with plant roots has led scientists from the United Arab Emirates on a path toward a promising new approach for boosting food production on arid lands. At a Dubai research farm, plant geneticist Nanduri Rao noticed that local bacteria were forming nodules along the roots of legumes, drawing nitrogen from the air and making it available to the plants. Taking a closer look, Rao discovered the bacteria could tolerate salt, acidity and heat, and appeared to thrive even in the presence of heavy metals. Scientists are now exploring whether the microbes might be used in other stressed environments to boost agricultural productivity and soil fertility. Photo by Planetina (Flickr | Creative Commons)